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      勞動造就美德
      2019年06月08日 12:13 來源:《光明日報》( 2019年06月03日 15版) 作者:李義天 字號
      關鍵詞:社會主義;勞動者;馬克思主義

      內容摘要:習近平總書記指出:“勞動是財富的源泉,也是幸福的源泉。”人不僅憑借勞動滿足最基本的生存需要,實現社會財富的創造和積累。日常生活的延續離不開勞動,美好生活的實現更有賴于勤勉而高效的勞動。在勞動的過程中,精湛的技藝、積極的合作、平等的對待都特別重要。在這個意義上,勞動不僅創造財富,而且造就美德。勞動與技藝馬克思說:“勞動首先是人和自然之間的過程,是人以自身的活動來引起、調整和控制人和自然之間的物質變換的過程。一旦某人作為勞動者而開始行動,他就必須努力讓自己的勞動成為“好的勞動”,即技藝精湛的勞動。勞動與團結人類的勞動具有社會性,它從來就不是一個人的勞動。

      關鍵詞:社會主義;勞動者;馬克思主義

      作者簡介:

        習近平總書記指出:“勞動是財富的源泉,也是幸福的源泉。人世間的美好夢想,只有通過誠實勞動才能實現;發展中的各種難題,只有通過誠實勞動才能破解;生命里的一切輝煌,只有通過誠實勞動才能鑄就。”人不僅憑借勞動滿足最基本的生存需要,實現社會財富的創造和積累,而且,在根本上,人最終也要通過勞動來實現人之為人的自由本質。因此,在馬克思恩格斯看來,勞動不僅創造了人本身,不僅意味著人的本質力量的對象化,而且,真正自由的勞動將構成人的第一需要。日常生活的延續離不開勞動,美好生活的實現更有賴于勤勉而高效的勞動。在勞動的過程中,精湛的技藝、積極的合作、平等的對待都特別重要。在這個意義上,勞動不僅創造財富,而且造就美德。

        勞動與技藝

        馬克思說:“勞動首先是人和自然之間的過程,是人以自身的活動來引起、調整和控制人和自然之間的物質變換的過程。”人之所以需要引起、調整和控制這種過程,在根本上,是因為人需要從自然界中獲取足夠的生活資料,滿足自身在衣食住行等方面的生活要求。然而,如果勞動者缺少基本的技藝,那么他們的勞動就無法實現“物質變換”這個目標。如果勞動者的技藝不夠精湛或有效,那么,隨著人們所需生活資料越來越多,社會將越來越可能出現普遍的困乏。如果勞動者的技藝不夠豐富或廣泛,那么,社會成員所期待的美好生活也就無法實現。

        因此,勞動需要技藝。亞里士多德說,“技藝”就是勞動或制作這類活動的美德。一旦某人作為勞動者而開始行動,他就必須努力讓自己的勞動成為“好的勞動”,即技藝精湛的勞動。而且,也只有當他真正展示出高超、精湛的技藝,使得勞動富有成效,他才能配稱為卓越或優秀的勞動者。在這個過程中,勞動者當然需要認真地鉆研、反復地練習,探索有效的途徑,培養自身堅忍不拔、精益求精的美德品質。

        勞動與團結

        人類的勞動具有社會性,它從來就不是一個人的勞動。隨著勞動的發展,尤其是現代社會的勞動發展,越來越精細的社會分工開始發生,越來越復雜的社會協作開始運行,越來越龐大的社會工程開始出現。對于任何單個的勞動者而言,要想完全依靠自己的勞動完成某項任務,已經變得越來越不可能。

        面對這樣的客觀狀況,正如法國學者涂爾干指出的那樣,勞動者個體將會越來越直接而深刻地意識到自身相對于社會和他人的依賴性,越來越感受到自己作為某個集體或整體的環節意義。此時,如果他不選擇積極的合作,不與他人保持團結,不積極參與既有的分工與協作,不愿作出相應的奉獻和適當的犧牲,那么,他就既不能充分發揮自己的勞動能力、實現自己的勞動目標,也不能充分獲得他人的社會承認,建立良好的社會關系。

        所以,從根本上講,現實的勞動要求使得勞動者能夠更加清晰地認識到社會團結和社會凝聚的必要性,使得他們更加自覺地參與到社會協商與社會合作的過程中。在廣泛而深度的社會聯系下,不僅勞動者個體之間,而且勞動者個體與群體之間,都將在利益訴求和價值取向上更加一致。相應的,他們也就更可能形成寬容、友善、互助、為他人奉獻甚至犧牲的美德品質。

        勞動與平等

        在任何人類社會,勞動者都構成其中的大多數。然而,只有在尊重勞動的社會,構成社會大多數的那些勞動者們,才會從社會圖像的背景或底層中“涌現”出來,得到認真地對待。在這個意義上,一個更尊重勞動、更尊重勞動者的社會,必定是一個更趨于平等的社會。在這樣的社會中,“勞動者”這一身份將成為社會成員的首要標識。與其他社會類型相比,它把更多的人置于同等的社會層級,從而將平等對待的范圍運用到更多的社會成員身上。

        不僅如此,對勞動的尊重和強調還意味著,社會將優先選擇“勞動”作為衡量社會貢獻、分配社會利益的標尺。盡管根據馬克思的看法,“按勞分配”也存在歷史的局限,常常不能實現完全的實質平等,并且在實際當中也仍然需要得到其他分配方式的補充,然而,相對于人類歷史上那些按照身份、血統、種族或資本進行分配的標準來說,“按勞分配”已經是迄今為止最為正義的分配方式了。它固然不能承諾最終分配的數量平等,但是,它把每個人都僅僅看作勞動者,這本身就是在承認每個人作為人具有同等的能動性和自由本質。因此,在社會生產力尚未達到充分發展的歷史階段,在最首要的原則上按照“勞動”的多少進行分配并且反對“不勞而獲”,這依然是最能夠促使勞動者形成平等的觀念、塑造平等的美德、進而促進社會成員平等對待的經濟基礎。

        顯然,只有在社會主義條件下,勞動才可能不再因為受制于資本的貪婪而淪為追逐利潤的單純手段;只有在社會主義條件下,“勞動者”才可能構成社會成員的“第一身份”或“共同身份”,從而保障社會和法律層面的平等;也只有在社會主義條件下,勞動才可能重新恢復其內在價值,重新構成一種在社會中造就美德、展現卓越、獲得嘉許的實踐基礎。也就是說,只有在尊重勞動、尊重勞動者的社會形態中,即社會主義社會中,社會成員的卓越、優秀與完善,亦即,我們作為社會成員的美德,才會現實地同勞動建立起直接而內在的關聯。

        (作者單位:清華大學高校德育研究中心)

      作者簡介

      姓名:李義天 工作單位:清華大學高校德育研究中心

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:張天昱)
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