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       首頁 >> 地區版塊 >> 北京
      從歷史層積性、文化關聯性以及平衡保護與發展等方面推進中軸線整體保護—— 借鑒“歷史性城鎮景觀”保護中軸線
      2019年06月10日 09:33 來源:《北京日報》2019年6月10日14版 作者:秦紅嶺 字號
      關鍵詞:北京中軸線;“歷史性城鎮景觀”;北京城市整體發展戰略

      內容摘要:2012年北京中軸線被列入中國申報世界遺產預備清單,目前北京中軸線申遺工作正全面推進。在此背景下,應對城市變遷中整體保護中軸線的難題,需要突破傳統保護模式,探索適應新時代要求的保護理念和有效路徑,并盡可能吸收和借鑒文化遺產保護國際準則確立的新理念和保護方法。其中,“歷史性城鎮景觀”就是一種獲得廣泛認同與實踐的整體保護框架,對北京中軸線申遺保護有重要的借鑒價值。“歷史性城鎮景觀”既是一種整體保護理念,也是落實城市保護理念的方法,它并不試圖取代現有的城市遺產保護方法,而是提供了一種遺產管理工具,有助于我們在城市文脈動態傳承的視角下,實現基于價值的綜合景觀方法管理文化遺產。

      關鍵詞:北京中軸線;“歷史性城鎮景觀”;北京城市整體發展戰略

      作者簡介:

        2012年北京中軸線被列入中國申報世界遺產預備清單,目前北京中軸線申遺工作正全面推進。然而,經歷了歷史巨變和快速城市發展洗禮的北京中軸線,歷史遺存呈現節點缺失、一些空間節點變形重構、新舊建筑并置等問題。在此背景下,應對城市變遷中整體保護中軸線的難題,需要突破傳統保護模式,探索適應新時代要求的保護理念和有效路徑,并盡可能吸收和借鑒文化遺產保護國際準則確立的新理念和保護方法。其中,“歷史性城鎮景觀”就是一種獲得廣泛認同與實踐的整體保護框架,對北京中軸線申遺保護有重要的借鑒價值。

        “歷史性城鎮景觀”既是一種整體保護理念,也是落實城市保護理念的方法,它并不試圖取代現有的城市遺產保護方法,而是提供了一種遺產管理工具,有助于我們在城市文脈動態傳承的視角下,實現基于價值的綜合景觀方法管理文化遺產。依據“歷史性城鎮景觀”的基本理念及方法,北京中軸線申遺保護應重視從歷史層積性、文化關聯性以及平衡保護與發展幾個方面推進整體保護工作。

        首先,基于“歷史性城鎮景觀”理念,整體保護北京老城中軸線,要從動態的歷史層積性視角全面認識中軸線文化遺產的整體價值,梳理中軸線層積性發展軌跡,將中軸線空間演變的歷史層積逐一加以辨識、詮釋和展示。

        北京中軸線是自元大都、明清北京城以來,北京城東西對稱布局建筑的對稱軸,覆蓋北京老城約65%的面積。正是這條發揮著統領作用的空間軸線,使城市格局秩序嚴謹,空間層次主次分明。元代以來,無論北京的城市形態如何變遷,一條貫通南北的城市軸線始終“傲然屹立”,其主導的空間布局成就了北京老城的獨特風貌。基于歷史層積性審視其價值,它的基本輪廓及節點上的一些主要建筑遺產,如天壇、正陽門、故宮建筑群、太廟、鐘樓、鼓樓,抗拒了歲月風霜,從明清一直延續到今天,成為體現北京古都風貌的重要標識。然而,認識和闡釋中軸線的整體價值,不能忽視中軸線歷史環境的當代變化,比如毛主席紀念堂、人民英雄紀念碑、天安門廣場等。

        可見,北京中軸線是具有歷史層積性的動態遺產,它應作為一種不斷煥發新的生命力的“過程”而非靜止不變的“對象”來加以保護。

        其次,“歷史性城鎮景觀”方法提出了一種在綜合性系統視角下思考北京中軸線保護的方式,重視整體挖掘中軸線歷史遺存同歷史場所、空間環境、歷史事件之間以及歷史遺存相互之間的關聯性。

        “關聯性”視角是對中軸線遺產價值的一種整體認識觀,體現在保護路徑層面就是要通過城市設計和文化規劃手段,把相互關聯的歷史文化要素和自然景觀要素,不論是歷史上的還是當代的,不論是有形的還是無形的,用系統性、連續性或主題性方法加以整合,確保中軸線歷史景觀得以完整呈現。具體而言,對北京老城中軸線的整體保護,不僅要保護以14處遺產點為代表的中軸線建筑遺存(實軸),還包括連接中軸線遺產點的歷史道路(虛軸)以及軸線兩側549公頃遺產區和4538公頃緩沖區。即是說,在遺產區和緩沖區內的文化遺存、自然景觀,都因與中軸線有空間關聯和文化主題關聯,而納入中軸線保護區域之中。

        在空間關聯方面,應通過合理控制軸線景觀視廊和總體建筑高度,保護緩沖區內的傳統格局和尺度,尤其應處理好從元代而來的玉河、積水潭、后海、前海、北海及中南海等水系軸線與宮殿軸線的布局關系。在文化主題關聯方面,可通過公共文化空間模式,完善與強化“文化之脊:北京老城中軸線建筑遺產”主題線路的城市文化標識價值,以中軸線現存各節點建筑以及緊鄰中軸線兩側的古跡和優秀近現代建筑為主要依據,構建北京老城中軸線公共文化空間的系統框架。在價值關聯方面,需要挖掘中軸線景觀的文化內涵,強化中軸線遺產的可讀性,解決中軸線遺產資源“有歷史缺故事、有建筑缺內容”的問題,提升公眾對中軸線價值的理解和認同度。

        最后,“歷史性城鎮景觀”作為一種管理歷史城市保護與發展的方法,旨在平衡遺產保護與經濟社會的可持續發展,是一種融合城市多維度發展目標的整合性保護模式,它啟示中軸線申遺保護不僅要恢復歷史風貌,還要考慮以此為契機,從歷史文化遺產保護中找到保護與產業功能定位、保護與人居環境改善和街區更新、保護與現代生活融合互動的結合點,通過綜合的治理性保護,完善中軸線周邊公共空間、公共服務設施的功能,提高城市宜居性,發揮中軸線歷史資源的當代活力。

        實際上,近幾年來北京中軸線申遺保護所取得的成就,一方面表現在文物騰退修繕、歷史風貌和中軸線文物建筑完整性恢復所取得的進展,例如,中軸線上除故宮之外的第二大建筑群景山壽皇殿騰退修繕后對公眾開放;另一方面則表現在沿線環境品質提升、高品質綠色公共空間打造以及街區人居環境綜合整治與更新方面,較好地將中軸線保護融入北京城市整體發展戰略之中,使北京中軸線既成為歷史軸線,也成為發展軸線。

        總之,“歷史性城鎮景觀”方法將北京中軸線申遺保護帶入了一個新的愿景,即以動態的歷史層積性、文化關聯性以及平衡保護與發展的視角,將北京的過去、現在與未來通過這條“文化之脊”有機聯系起來。

        (作者單位:北京建筑大學馬克思主義學院。本文系北京市社科基金重點項目“基于主題性策略的北京老城建筑遺產資源保護及再利用模式研究”的階段性成果)

      作者簡介

      姓名:秦紅嶺 工作單位:北京建筑大學馬克思主義學院

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:張天昱)
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