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       首頁 >> 地區版塊 >> 北京
      旅游業面臨增長要素的歷史性轉換—— 推動非物質文化在旅游業的深度利用
      2019年06月10日 09:49 來源:《北京日報》2019年6月10日14版 作者:金準 字號
      關鍵詞:旅游業;非物質文化遺產;轉化效率

      內容摘要:當前,中國的宏觀經濟形勢已發生重大變化,總體上看,中國旅游業高速增長的特點仍在延續,但新的結構性變化已經產生,中國旅游業面臨增長要素的歷史性轉換,前一階段支撐中國旅游業快速發展的關鍵要素正在相繼發生變化,亟待轉換增長方式。我國旅游業一直具有和非物質文化遺產結合的傳統,但這種結合,與高速期的旅游業發展模式緊密捆綁在一起,其發展依賴宏觀增長紅利,依賴政策主導,依賴低的土地、資源和勞動力成本,依賴大投資的持續導入,導致市場發育不完全,良性的增長格局和收益格局遲遲沒有形成。而這其中,非物質文化遺產能通過在旅游業的深度轉化和利用,推動中國旅游業新的增長方式的形成,推動產業向高深轉化,是下一階段旅游業發展的重要一面,其改革和創新,特別值得我們的重視。

      關鍵詞:旅游業;非物質文化遺產;轉化效率

      作者簡介:

        黨的十九大提出,“我國經濟已由高速增長階段轉向高質量發展階段,正處在轉變發展方式、優化經濟結構、轉換增長動力的攻關期。”經濟換檔期將是一個相對較長的時期,從國際經驗看,平均為14年,在這一時期,旅游業一般發生結構性的轉變,在這其中,要高度關注非物質文化遺產對產業的深化作用。

        當前,中國的宏觀經濟形勢已發生重大變化,總體上看,中國旅游業高速增長的特點仍在延續,但新的結構性變化已經產生,中國旅游業面臨增長要素的歷史性轉換,前一階段支撐中國旅游業快速發展的關鍵要素正在相繼發生變化,亟待轉換增長方式,而這有賴于非物質文化在旅游業的深度利用。從轉變旅游業的增長方式的角度,非物質文化遺產的深度利用,將帶來旅游業的幾個重要變化:第一,以規模增長為主轉向效率提升;第二,從硬資源投入為主轉向軟資源深挖;第三,以勞動力依賴為主轉向知識依托;第四,以物質資源的直接轉化為主轉為文化資源的深度開發。

        我國旅游業一直具有和非物質文化遺產結合的傳統,但這種結合,與高速期的旅游業發展模式緊密捆綁在一起,其發展依賴宏觀增長紅利,依賴政策主導,依賴低的土地、資源和勞動力成本,依賴大投資的持續導入,導致市場發育不完全,良性的增長格局和收益格局遲遲沒有形成,要依托非物質文化遺產的深度利用,突破高速期的旅游業發展模式,推進新的增長模式的形成,需要實現多層次的結構性破題,其核心在于三個方面:

        第一,依托改革,提高非物質文化遺產的轉化效率。這必須要求產業的增長轉向基于全要素生產率的效率模式。目前我國旅游業新積累深度嚴重不足,對應到非物質文化遺產的旅游利用方面,面臨淺層次(以直接轉化為主,文化深化程度和科技結合程度都比較低,復合性、體驗性和延伸性都較差)、高負荷(非物質文化遺產的利用一方面享受很低的直接使用成本,另一方面在其轉化過程中又面臨著資源、用地、能源、融資等多方面的高成本問題,保護和開發都難以維系)、非充分(政府主導型戰略一方面推動非物質文化遺產在旅游業的廣泛利用,另一方面也在產生低效率的問題)、低替代(業態升級緩慢,產品替代頻次低)等多方面問題,亟待改革破題。未來的非物質文化遺產的旅游業利用,應該重視三個“注重”,即注重改革對于生產力的松綁,注重市場對綜合創新力的激活,注重知識與科技對產業的結構性進化。

        第二,圍繞市場,推進旅游文化消費的深化。非物質文化遺產與旅游業結合,已經成為中國旅游消費的重要形態,但消費的深化仍然不足,文化附加值依然較低。旅游文化消費的深化,核心是如何建立適應需求的供給。當前,旅游需求正在發生巨大的變化,正在走向新的人口世代的主導,走向消費者更具主權的社會,走向越來越難以滿足的市場需求,面對趨勢性的升級和結構性的降級并存的局面,快速增長期相對剛性的供給體系,難以應對新的市場變化,供給要適應彈性化、柔性化、快速化的變革需求。

        第三,拓展發展邊界,建立前沿拓展型的創新模式。現有的非物質文化遺產的旅游利用,以從旅游先發展國家習得的跟隨式模仿居多,隨著中國旅游業逐漸步入世界旅游業的發展前沿,可借鑒的他國發展經驗越來越少,下一步要自主開拓新的前沿,需要商業模式、創新模式和人才模式的大轉換。

        總之,經濟換檔期對旅游業的定位,應該是從高速環境中的規模產業轉變為中速環境中的高深產業。而這其中,非物質文化遺產能通過在旅游業的深度轉化和利用,推動中國旅游業新的增長方式的形成,推動產業向高深轉化,是下一階段旅游業發展的重要一面,其改革和創新,特別值得我們的重視。

        (作者單位:中國社會科學院旅游研究中心、中國社會科學院財經戰略研究院)

      作者簡介

      姓名:金準 工作單位:中國社會科學院旅游研究中心、中國社會科學院財經戰略研究院

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:張天昱)
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