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       首頁 >> 地區版塊 >> 廣東
      促進小農戶和現代農業發展有機銜接
      2019年03月11日 15:49 來源:南方日報 作者:羅必良 字號

      內容摘要:小農戶融入現代農業發展軌道,契合新時期發展理念,是建設中國特色農業現代化的必然選擇。

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        小農戶融入現代農業發展軌道,契合新時期發展理念,是建設中國特色農業現代化的必然選擇。推進農業規模化經營,不能僅僅局限于農地產權層面的制度安排,更要探索產權實施層面的經營方式轉型。培育適應小農戶需求的多元化多層次農業生產性服務組織,將農業家庭經營卷入分工經濟,需要重視農業布局的優化與生產性服務平臺建設。

        黨的十九大提出要“實現小農戶和現代農業發展有機銜接”。最近,中共中央辦公廳和國務院辦公廳發布的“一號文件”,強調加快培育各類社會化服務組織,為一家一戶提供全程社會化服務。隨后,中辦、國辦進一步發布《關于促進小農戶和現代農業發展有機銜接的意見》,對于促進傳統小農戶向現代小農戶轉變,實現小農戶與現代農業發展有機銜接,夯實實施鄉村振興戰略的基礎,加快推進農業農村現代化,有著重要的指導作用。

        小農戶大量并長期存在,是農業經營的重要主體

        中國農業長期以“大國小農”的形式存續并發展,即使歷經數千年的歷史變遷,小農戶仍然在中國普遍存在。目前,我國有2.6億多農戶,其中2.3億是承包戶。小農戶占據農業經營的主體地位且長盛不衰是中華民族長期歷史進程中優勝劣汰的結果。

        小農戶融入現代農業發展軌道,契合新時期發展理念,是建設中國特色農業現代化的必然選擇。創新、協調、綠色、開放、共享的新發展理念要求大力推進農業現代化,加快轉變農業發展方式,走產出高效、產品安全、資源節約、環境友好的農業現代化道路。而化肥和農藥的零增長,農產品安全的保障乃至美麗鄉村的建設,都需要小農式的精耕細作才能得以實現。目前,以綠色農產品生產為主的家庭農場、微型合作社及小農戶,發展勢頭強勁、產品暢銷、增收顯著。

        當前和今后很長一個時期,小農生產仍將是我國農業的主要經營方式與農業發展的重要組織資源。要進一步激發小農戶生產經營的積極性、主動性、創造性,使小農戶成為發展現代農業的積極力量和有效參與者。要進一步促進傳統小農戶向現代小農戶轉變,讓小農戶共享改革發展成果,實現小農戶與現代農業發展有機銜接,加快推進農業農村現代化。

        以社會化服務助力小農戶,促其融入分工經濟

        農業生產依賴于土地,但是土地生產率的高低并不單一地由土地本身決定,而是由土地質量、種子種苗、栽培技術、植保以及灌溉條件等多種要素決定的生產函數。不同特性資源的相互配置,無疑會決定經營組織形式。比如,干旱地區的土地產出率,可能首先不是由土地質量決定,而更多地依賴于灌溉條件。第一,如果灌溉具有可分性(如農戶各自在自己的承包地里打井),并不會產生特別的土地規模要求,卻會導致更加稀缺的水資源的浪費。第二,如果灌溉設施不具有可分性,就會對農戶的土地經營規模提出新的要求。由此而言,干旱地區選擇家庭分散經營并不一定是最適宜的經營方式;第三,如果存在良好的公共灌溉服務(中間性產品),那么家庭經營規模就轉換為灌溉的服務規模問題。

        在農村土地“三權”分置制度框架下,如何盤活農地經營權尤為重要。顯然,通過農地的流轉與集中,進而形成規模“足夠大”的農場,是可以形成內部分工與專業化的。但由于農地具有空間不可移動性以及產權地理壟斷性等特征,加之中國特殊而緊張的人地關系以及農民對土地的人格化財產特性,決定了農地流轉并非一個單純的要素市場。尤其是我國各地農業資源稟賦條件差異很大,很多丘陵山區地塊零散,決定了農地流轉必然內生出高昂的交易費用。顯然,通過土地流轉推進規模化經營及農場內部的分工與專業化,往往易于受限。因此,推進農業規模化經營,不能僅僅局限于農地產權層面的制度安排,更要探索產權實施層面的經營方式轉型。

        隨著現代農業科技的進步,農業生產經營活動的可分性不斷增強。一方面,農業生產活動可以從縱向上劃分為不同的生產環節,多數農事活動環節是可以分離的。例如,農業機械可以由農戶購買轉換為由市場提供中間品服務,作物生產中的整地、育苗、栽插、病蟲害防治、收割等生產環節亦可向專業化的服務組織外包。另一方面,經營權細分為不同主體進入農業提供了可能性空間。代耕代種、聯耕聯種、土地托管、經理人代營等各種專業化服務,均能夠從不同層面擴展農業經營中迂回交易與分工深化的空間。

        隨著勞動力大量非農轉移與農業勞動雇傭成本快速上漲,傳統小農戶獨立且封閉的生產經營活動不再具有比較優勢,而采用多元化多層次農業生產性服務外包以節省生產成本和交易成本,勢必成為農戶改善要素配置效率的恰當選擇。因此,在農地經營權的產權細分、農戶生產經營活動卷入分工與生產性服務外包的前提下,農業的土地規模經營就可以擴展為服務規模經營。

        改善農業布局結構,搭建服務交易平臺

        培育適應小農戶需求的多元化多層次農業生產性服務組織,將農業家庭經營卷入分工經濟,需要重視農業布局的優化與生產性服務平臺建設。

        (1)農業生產的區域專業化。在既定區域內,市場容量決定著農業分工水平。單個小農戶的土地規模小而分散,難以形成實現分工所需要的市場容量。若在一定區域內組織引導若干農戶進行集中化、連片化與專業化生產,由此形成服務需求規模,不同生產環節的外包服務主體才具有進入的比較成本優勢。因此,在微觀層面,應引導各地通過“一村一品、一鄉一特、一縣一業”,形成優勢農產品的集群布局與區域專業化;在宏觀層面,為促進農業生產性服務的跨區作業外包,應沿緯度開展農業布局的時空調整與優化。由此擴大農業服務組織的交易范圍和交易頻率,降低服務交易成本,提高農業生產與分工交易效率。

        (2)構建輻射半徑適度的農業生產性服務交易平臺。實現小農戶與服務組織對接有賴于交易平臺的搭建。鑒于交易半徑過大會導致較高交易成本,因此有必要構建區域性、多種類、多中心的交易范圍適度的生產性服務交易平臺。多中心交易平臺具有重要的分工網絡效應:第一,交易競爭所形成的聲譽機制有助于農戶甄別并獲得優質的專業化服務;第二,盡管存在服務質量考核的困難,但專業服務形成的資產專用性及其鎖定效應,能夠有效緩解監督成本問題;第三,盡管農業生產存在信息的不規則性,但專業化服務組織具有信息搜集與處理的比較優勢;第四,通過各類平臺的準入退出機制,有助于改善服務交易的標準化與規范化,并能夠為服務品牌的建設、農業企業家群體的生成提供可持續激勵。

       

        (作者系華南農業大學國家農業制度與發展研究院院長、長江學者)

      作者簡介

      姓名:羅必良 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:賈偉)
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