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       首頁 >> 地區版塊 >> 河南
      優化鄉村文化供給 提高農民自我期許
      2019年06月05日 11:25 來源:《河南日報》 作者:祁海軍 字號

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        無論工業化城鎮化現代化進行到什么階段,農業必然都是不可替代的產業,農民必然都是無法忽視的職業和身份,鄉村文化必然都是現代文化不可或缺的重要組成部分。在城市化狂飆突進的時代里,大量農民的向外流動和頻繁遷徙導致一些鄉村的衰落及其主體價值認同弱化。在當下的想象里,鄉村一直作為很多人的故鄉、后方和退路而存在。一些學者面對“回不去”的故鄉,往往充滿了文化優越感、鄉愁和他者的想象。畢竟在這些敘事里,農民往往并不在場,他們描述的鄉村生活也難以成為我們解脫寂寞城市生活的溫柔部分。為什么在鄉村經濟長足發展、農民生活極大改善的今天,一些人卻開始急切地哀悼鄉村?現代農民作為一種職業分工和社會身份,是否還是封閉落后和缺少文化的象征?如何擘畫鄉村未來的愿景和鄉村振興戰略,促使一部分人還甘愿做現代農民并更加幸福?如果單純從經濟層面來考量,這些問題可能永遠無解。全社會必須關心、肯定和尊重農民生活世界及其生存方式、意義和價值,優化鄉村文化供給,滿足農民的精神文化需求,提升農民的自我期許。

        在歷史視野中發現鄉村文化價值

        中華文明只有從文化層面來看,才可以說它的歷史是沒有中斷的。它的基礎幾千年以前是農耕文化,現在仍然是這樣。不過,這種文化基礎在當下表面上成了從屬的和陳舊的,表現出和當代發展絕緣、并滯后于當代文化發展的表象,事實上,當代文化沒有超出這一基礎。比如,現在進行的城鎮化、工業化、農業現代化一方面承認農村是傳統社會歷史的遺存空間,是充滿情感歸屬的文化和生活世界,十分需要整個社會的理解和尊重,對于鄉村的任何變革都必須在這個基礎之上進行;一方面又從根本上否認了傳統鄉村文化在現代化過程中有政治、經濟、文化上持續存在的必要性與正當權益。這種矛盾的態度,恰恰使鄉村文化問題解決起來更加棘手。

        鄉村文化的現代價值不應被忽視。有人認為鄉村文化就是落后的代名詞,事實上并不是這樣。鄉村的某些習俗乍看之下好像是迷信或愚昧,但是在當下并不是可有可無的。比如農村的葬禮儀式,看起來繁瑣、迷信的說頭很多,其實它不僅是傳統的孝道所要求的“禮”,也是對親子、親屬、親族關系的明確定位。這是對一定辦事程序由衷的尊重,對于家族公共事務的熱心和關注,對于鄉村社會輿論和社會秩序有很大影響。任何人都不能有越禮的言行,否則必然被認為不孝或無德,在親戚鄰里圈子乃至附近村落就很難立足。這種文化習俗對于鄉村社會關系的維系和社會規范的維護大有裨益。現在某些領域的社會失范固然有多方面的原因,但從根本上說,就是我們的社會失去了令人肅然起敬的某種東西。這種東西就是文化。我們并不是要求人們回到過去,而是要肯定農民這種骨子里對秩序和規矩的尊重,這在現代社會有無可取代的文化價值。無論在鄉村還是城市,失去這種令人肅然起敬的東西,都是得不償失的。

        在社會變遷中整合盤活鄉村文化資源

        現代社會變動不居、變化空前。每個正在成長著的年輕人如何在關于文化的相互沖突的觀點之中,在已經能夠通過電視和網絡文化掣肘我們的世界之中,找到自己確切的位置,是一個時代議題。同理,農民的價值認同和自我期許也是新時代的關鍵議題。

        農民的價值認同和自我期許來自其文化價值的確定性,任何人都無法在缺少文化的解釋和幫助下,“獨立地”看待變動不居的世界。由于經濟社會發展的不平衡性、不確定性和難以預測性以及時空壓縮效應,農民普遍感受到強烈的心理變化。利益格局不斷調整,文化觀念深刻變革,傳統社會圖景逐漸瓦解,造成農民對自身的價值認同降低。在這樣的時代,首要的問題是引導農民適應快速變化的世界,在這樣的世界里心安理得、安身立命。其次是推進鄉村有效治理,提升農民的安全感和幸福感,使鄉村社會安定有序充滿活力。第三是滿足農民的精神需求,為鄉村的未來提供穩固美好的社會圖景。這些都需要整合盤活鄉村文化存量資源,優化鄉村文化增量資源配置,發揮鄉村文化的多重功能。

        在需求滿足中優化鄉村文化供給

        鄉村文化供給必須滿足農民的精神需求和國家的治理需要。不僅要把鄉村文化作為鄉村振興的意識形態教化資源和國家治理的價值基礎,而且要作為關乎農民人文素養、文明素質、價值認同、幸福體驗以及安身立命的精神家園和最終歸宿。對于相對缺乏確定性、安全感和信任感的農民個體,要通過精神文化產品的供給減輕其生存壓力、重塑其價值觀念、引導其過高期望、提高其自我期許;對于國家治理來說,要通過鄉村文化供給變革治理目標、更新治理理念、提供價值支撐和文化安全保障。對于鄉村社會圖景重構來說,要通過鄉村文化供給,使農民理解變化的急劇性、增強價值的包容性、把握改革的艱巨性和幸福的主體性。

        新時代鄉村文化供給必須精選內容、適應市場。首先,它是關注鄉村公共福祉的文化,要關心、肯定和尊重現代農民的生存意義和價值關懷。它的生產是可以普及和監督的,這樣可以保證鄉村文化的公共性和易得性,不被誤用和私用。其次,鄉村文化必須是新時代農民共同體的文化共識,而不是個人靈感的忽然迸發或想當然的獨斷。只有文化共識才能變成常識,影響和規范人們的行為。再次,當前文化需求與供給已經變成一種市場行為,任何一種文化必須在與同類文化的比較中表現出更大說服力,發揮更大的社會功能。這就要求鄉村文化的創造者和提供者更加尊重農民主體和市場規律。

        (作者系省委黨校哲學教研部副教授)

      作者簡介

      姓名:祁海軍 工作單位:河南省委黨校哲學教研部

      職稱:副教授

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:馬云飛)
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