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       首頁 >> 地區版塊 >> 山東
      《永樂大典》曲折往事,兼與山東一段特殊情緣
      2019年05月21日 13:43 來源:大眾日報 作者:于國鵬 字號
      關鍵詞:正本;亞洲;展覽;永樂大典;副本

      內容摘要:被稱為“合古今而集大成”的《永樂大典》,是中國第一部百科全書式的文獻集。這部大典價值多高?境遇是如何離奇曲折?竟然與山東還有一段特殊的情緣,背后又是什么樣的故事?眼下正在國家圖書館(國家典籍博物館)舉辦的“曠世宏編文獻大成——國家圖書館藏《永樂大典》文獻展”,就讓觀眾有機會一睹“合古今而集大成”的曠世奇書風采,并了解其一路走來的那些曲折往事。

      關鍵詞:正本;亞洲;展覽;永樂大典;副本

      作者簡介:

        □記者 于國鵬

        被稱為“合古今而集大成”的《永樂大典》,是中國第一部百科全書式的文獻集。這部大典價值多高?境遇是如何離奇曲折?竟然與山東還有一段特殊的情緣,背后又是什么樣的故事?

        眼下正在國家圖書館(國家典籍博物館)舉辦的“曠世宏編 文獻大成——國家圖書館藏《永樂大典》文獻展”,就讓觀眾有機會一睹“合古今而集大成”的曠世奇書風采,并了解其一路走來的那些曲折往事。

        這個展覽也被納入亞洲文明對話大會亞洲文明活動周的系列活動之中。

        《永樂大典》是國家圖書館的四大專藏之一,成書于明永樂年間,全書共22937卷,分裝11095冊,共約3.7億字。《永樂大典》規模宏大,遠超此前歷代之類書,被稱為“序百王之傳,總歷代之典”。就是這樣一部“合古今而集大成”的皇皇巨著,正本竟然離奇失蹤,至今下落不明。而副本亦流落散失,至今僅百余其一二。

        展覽分成五個單元,分別為大典猶看永樂傳、合古今而集大成、久閱滄桑惜弗全、搜羅頗見費心堅和遂使已湮得再顯。這其實也串聯起《永樂大典》從修撰至今,歷經滄桑的現實際遇。

        為舉辦這個展覽,國家圖書館特遴選原件十二冊,影印本若干,配以古籍善本、輿圖拓片、檔案復制件,以及中西文出版物等展品近百種,由此亦串聯起中華文化生生不息的一線文脈。

        簡單勾勒《永樂大典》的“傳奇”經歷如下。

        永樂元年,即1403年,明成祖朱棣下詔,解縉等編成《文獻大成》。因“尚多未備”,永樂三年,復令姚廣孝等重修,永樂五年正式定名《永樂大典》。永樂六年冬,全書告成。

        修纂《永樂大典》,集合了全國才俊之士2000多名。面對這份特別工作,朝廷也另眼相待。編修者飲食起居基本由朝廷包辦,生活條件優厚,且免除外出朝謁,保證他們專心致志地工作。編修人員還獲準有權查閱珍貴的皇家藏書。全書告成后,編修人員都受到不同程度的賞賜。

        明嘉靖帝時,又諭令繕寫《永樂大典》副本,也即修撰“備用版”。這倒并非一時心血來潮。嘉靖皇帝喜讀《永樂大典》,案頭常置一二帙,以備隨時取閱。嘉靖三十六年即1557年,紫禁城大火,因擔心危及收藏大典的文樓,一夜之間,連下三四道諭旨,下令搬遷,大典免遭火災。為免此類不測,遂著意重錄一份大典。嘉靖四十一年,正式任命高拱、瞿景淳負責校理繕寫《永樂大典》副本。副本耗時五年,嘉靖皇帝去世次年才完成。正本與副本,在內容和外觀上,幾無二致。

        令人難解的是,副本錄畢,正本竟然從此絕少消息,也找不到正本實物。關于正本去處,后世有多種觀點,有的認為隨嘉靖皇帝陪葬,有的認為已于萬歷年間焚毀……種種說法,大抵揣測,并無實據。反正,正本蹤跡皆無。至于副本,境遇也極為坎坷,后來被盜、被毀、被劫掠,所幸存世僅百之一二。

        這樣的巨著,如此經歷,奇也不奇?

        《永樂大典》的文化價值是多方面的,其體例、編校甚至包括用紙、書寫,皆可圈可點。如編纂體例非常科學,與一般類書不同,用韻以統字,用字以系事,匯聚宏富而綱目清晰。上起先秦,下至明永樂年間,匯集圖書七八千種之多。這些書的內容既包括經史子集,亦收錄陰陽醫卜雜家之書,又基本保持書籍原始內容,極具版本學價值。

        國家圖書館展覽部主任辛璐在接受央視采訪時說,“我們也是希望通過這些展覽,能夠對外展示中華文明也包括亞洲各國文明的精髓,同時促進亞洲文明之間交流互鑒,使這些展覽成為一個重要的平臺。”

        這也正是這個展覽被納入亞洲文明對話大會亞洲文明活動周的原因所在,它切合大會“亞洲文明交流互鑒與命運共同體”的主題。《永樂大典》收錄的內容,對文明交流互鑒有直接記載。比如,對于馬可·波羅是否真正到過中國,西方學者一直質疑。《馬克·波羅游記》記載,馬克·波羅在中國居住了17年,最后,他們一家伴隨護送闊闊真的三使臣,抵達波斯后,回到故鄉威尼斯。《永樂大典》卷19418所引元修《經世大典·站赤》的一段記載,與此記錄相符。兩書相互印證,證實馬克·波羅來華的真實性。

        令人扼腕嘆息的是,如此一部巨著,正本失蹤,副本也逐漸流散。據國圖統計,截至2017年底,《永樂大典》僅發現有400余冊、800余卷及部分殘頁存世,分散于8個國家和地區的30多個公私藏家手中。中國國家圖書館共藏有224冊,占存世數量一半以上,為海內外《永樂大典》最大藏家。

        據介紹,國家圖書館從建館之初,即致力于《永樂大典》的搜集與保護。其間也有很多傳奇故事。1983年1月30日《人民日報》四版,轉發《大眾日報》刊登的山東掖縣程郭公社高郭大隊社員孫洪林捐獻兩卷《永樂大典》的消息。根據報道,孫家起初并不知道這是如此珍貴的寶貝,這兩卷《永樂大典》只不過用來夾鞋樣了。經專家鑒定,這是副本原本。最后,孫洪林將這珍貴的兩卷大典捐給國家收藏。

      作者簡介

      姓名:于國鵬 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:張彥)
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