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       首頁 >> 地區版塊 >> 山西
      賈炳正: 非遺傳承需要代代相傳
      2019年05月13日 14:52 來源:山西日報 作者:賈炳正 字號
      關鍵詞:晉劇;藝術;傳承;

      內容摘要:筆者是晉劇的“老學生”,現年87歲。雖然現在已是晉劇國家級非遺傳承人,但筆者總覺得自己的藝術水平差老前輩們很多,這并不是客套的謙虛話。所以,筆者用大半輩子的時間去搜集整理關于晉劇鑼鼓的技藝。自己清楚,晉劇武場傳統絕活失傳的太多,太可惜了。還有不少沒有拜師的學生,有的是在晉中藝校教過的,有的是個人藝校帶過的,還有的是登門拜訪的愛好者,更有大學的研究生,他們的名姓很多都記不得或是叫不上,但筆者可以肯定的是,他們為晉劇司鼓的發揚光大同樣做出了貢獻。所以,筆者現在和徒弟王曉鵬在努力建一個非遺傳承基地,實現傳授和練習的全程影像對照,讓藝術傳授更加正規化、科學化。

      關鍵詞:晉劇;藝術;傳承;

      作者簡介:

       

        筆者是晉劇的“老學生”,現年87歲。這輩子最幸福的就是和戲結緣,伴鼓而生。雖然現在已是晉劇國家級非遺傳承人,但筆者總覺得自己的藝術水平差老前輩們很多,這并不是客套的謙虛話。所以,筆者用大半輩子的時間去搜集整理關于晉劇鑼鼓的技藝。一些搞專業擊樂的,或是業余的愛好者,都說“賈炳正這套書有點意思”。但其實,這些東西并不是個人獨創,筆者只是盡最大努力,將自己和老前輩們在一起時的所學所見所聞系統地進行了歸攏。自己清楚,晉劇武場傳統絕活失傳的太多,太可惜了。

        戲曲人,自古以來社會地位不高。筆者親眼見過那些身懷絕技的師傅們老境頹唐的模樣,所以深感黨和國家的恩情。筆者有27個徒弟,他們各有所長,在不同的院團都是優秀人才,部分還是領軍人物。如80歲的老徒弟馮仁英在榆次區藝校工作多年,為晉劇院團培養和輸送了不少音樂人才;老徒弟董晉國在介休市藝校執教,培養了以太原市晉劇藝術研究院“二度梅”謝濤專職司鼓閆耀為代表的優秀樂手。筆者的3個徒弟王錦、王曉鵬和郭海成被晉中市評為非遺傳承人。看到他們的努力和成績,筆者感到萬分欣慰。還有不少沒有拜師的學生,有的是在晉中藝校教過的,有的是個人藝校帶過的,還有的是登門拜訪的愛好者,更有大學的研究生,他們的名姓很多都記不得或是叫不上,但筆者可以肯定的是,他們為晉劇司鼓的發揚光大同樣做出了貢獻。戲曲,需要代代相傳,需要更多更多的人傾心投入。

        關于非遺傳承,筆者有如下一些想法:

        一是“為什么傳承”。這個世界上,只有文化和藝術是最為永久的,也是用錢無法估量的。傳承不是為了作秀,不是為了讓它們到博物館展示,而是要將這美好的藝術化為飛入尋常百姓家的高雅志趣。個人認為,現在部分戲的創作是脫離傳統的,非但無法傳承下去,而且我們這些傳承人都分不清脈絡了。傳承的東西和傳播的時尚是兩股麻繩,越擰越緊才能產生力量,否則就是事倍功半。

        二是“傳承什么”。現在,筆者主要是恢復老劇本,傳授傳統鑼鼓技法。筆者明顯感覺到,業余愛好者對這些更感興趣。這并不是說專業院團的孩子們不思進取,主要還是“用不上”的問題。學以致用,溫故知新。以前為什么我們學習動力足?是因為鼓師、琴師直接參與創作,書到用時方恨少,要動腦筋,要變通。而現在,孩子們只是演奏員,有再大的才干沒有話語權,一切都等于零。

        三是“傳承給誰”。為什么以前很多絕技失傳了?我們這些不肖學徒接收的少是一方面,更多是老藝人那種“教會徒弟、餓死師傅”的狹隘觀念。現在,拜師比較流行。但是,舉行了儀式、領了紅本本、錄了像、吃了飯,就是傳承嗎?這是一種舊社會留下來的風氣。筆者的傳承,不分徒弟、學生,不分專業的、業余的,只要是真心喜歡這門藝術的,都會毫無保留傳授,一遍不行兩遍,兩遍不行三遍。筆者最怕孩子們在藝術學習中出現“吃不飽,吃不好”的問題。但是,藝術傳承并不是簡單事,必須得有一個陣地,選拔一些有天賦、能吃苦的好苗子,解決好他們的出路問題,讓他們心無旁騖地專心學習鉆研,這些人將來是要為晉劇事業扛鼎的。所以,筆者現在和徒弟王曉鵬在努力建一個非遺傳承基地,實現傳授和練習的全程影像對照,讓藝術傳授更加正規化、科學化。

        四是“如何傳承”。筆者現在身體還行,但是一些活動主辦單位一聽歲數大了,你就是心有余、力也足,人家也不敢“請神出山”。筆者發現有一些對外的活動,這些“走出去”的宣傳是非常必然的。但,對晉劇這樣的劇種來說不太容易。個人認為,晉劇當然是要為人民服務的,真正精深的晉劇藝術還是需要我們廣大鐵桿戲迷去品評的。還發現一個問題,就是搞一些活動人手不夠。從事專業技藝展示的有眾多徒弟保障,但是在文字表達、組織宣傳方面,我們力量特別薄弱。真心建議,國家在非遺傳承方面拿出一些專項編制,不要局限于所謂博士、碩士這些高學歷,我們需要那些“真刀實槍”謀事創業的干將。

        

      作者簡介

      姓名:賈炳正 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:馮馨慧)
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