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       首頁 >> 地區版塊 >> 新疆
      《遠去的牧歌》:民族志的辯證法
      2019年05月24日 14:55 來源:中國民族報(2019年5月24日) 作者:胡譜忠 字號
      關鍵詞:民族志;牧民;哈薩克族

      內容摘要:該片以哈薩克族牧民胡瑪爾與哈迪夏因一次轉場意外而結下的40年恩怨糾葛為線索,按照春夏秋冬四季的順序,全景展現了新疆牧民在時代變遷下的心路歷程。影片在敘事上采用散文式的結構,將轉場路上的奇異山川、民俗風情都表現得淋漓盡致,許多場景都是富有人類學意味的搶救性再現記錄。在社會學的意義上,影片記錄了世代逐水草而居的哈薩克族牧民,在改革開放以來“定居興牧”政策的引導下,告別轉場游牧生活,逐步適應定居城鎮生活的社會變革過程。民族題材電影常常從民族志的角度對民族文化的器物與價值進行細致的摩挲,造成以往民族題材電影中的民族志記錄和表述常常是沉浸式的、多單一地指向過去,沉湎于對傳統生活的浪漫化表達。

      關鍵詞:民族志;牧民;哈薩克族

      作者簡介:

        《遠去的牧歌》是由阿迪夏·夏熱合曼、周軍執導的劇情片,由新疆維吾爾自治區黨委宣傳部、自治區新聞出版廣電局、天山電影制片廠聯合攝制。該片以哈薩克族牧民胡瑪爾與哈迪夏因一次轉場意外而結下的40年恩怨糾葛為線索,按照春夏秋冬四季的順序,全景展現了新疆牧民在時代變遷下的心路歷程。影片在敘事上采用散文式的結構,將轉場路上的奇異山川、民俗風情都表現得淋漓盡致,許多場景都是富有人類學意味的搶救性再現記錄。

        在社會學的意義上,影片記錄了世代逐水草而居的哈薩克族牧民,在改革開放以來“定居興牧”政策的引導下,告別轉場游牧生活,逐步適應定居城鎮生活的社會變革過程。影片盡力還原了宏大的原生態“游牧遷徙”的壯觀景象,使觀眾獲得身臨其境的體驗。在這種敘事過程中,影片自然會涉及民族題材電影常見的“現代與傳統”關系問題。不過,本片雖然也展現了社會變革給傳統社區帶來的不適,但并沒有把民族地區現代化進程與民族文化保護與傳承處理成對立關系,基本立意也不是表現鄉愁的傷感和焦慮,代之而起的是影片中人物角色對社會變革的開放胸襟和對更美好現代生活的向往。

        劇中主人公是牧村的長者,也是牧村四季轉場的領頭人。隨著時代的變遷,他并沒有沉湎于傳統生活方式不能自拔,而是不失主動地順應著歷史潮流。雖然他對生活的變化也抱有片刻的缺憾和傷感,但也感受到了新生活帶來的積極變化,并由衷地為這些變化而欣慰。

        電影中的“鄉愁敘事”不是單向度的,沒有流于悲切。牧民們要跟上整個時代的前進步伐,對鄉愁的回望心態必然是復雜的。民族題材電影常常從民族志的角度對民族文化的器物與價值進行細致的摩挲,造成以往民族題材電影中的民族志記錄和表述常常是沉浸式的、多單一地指向過去,沉湎于對傳統生活的浪漫化表達。而從這部電影可以看出,民族志的記錄和表述是可以有多種功能和文化指向的。那些雄渾而恢弘的轉場畫卷,基調并不感傷,而是傳遞出牧民們傳統生活的嚴峻、艱難和生存尊嚴。但民族志不只是針對歷史中留存的靜態的文化,對現實生活中社會變革的即時記錄其實是正在發生的民族志。因此,轉場、游牧遷徙是民族志,定居也是民族志。

        這也是新疆電影民族志的辯證法。刻板印象中的新疆文化大都是各種靜止的原生態奇觀,但其實,對新疆正在變革的社會所做的記錄也凝結著民族文化豐富而強大的內涵。從這個意義上講,天山電影制片廠的這部影片與以往電影的主旨不同。生活在西部邊陲的各族人民與當代中國的大多數人一樣,都在現代與傳統的合力中建構生活的意義。《遠去的牧歌》中幾次出現政府的聲音與形象,是有現實生活依據的。

        牧民們最終告別游牧遷徙的傳統生活,走向了城鎮定居,這是時代性的變革。劇中青年一代也熱切地盼望到城里去生活,盼望這種由政府引導的遷徙。這種對美好生活的需求與發展不平衡不充分之間的矛盾在民族地區更典型。這部影片沒有用一種關于少數民族文化的刻板認知來扭曲現實生活的本來面目。

        從近年來的電影,如《塔克拉瑪干的鼓聲》開始,新疆電影正不斷強化著電影的社會文化導向。從這個意義上來說,《遠去的牧歌》也引領了新疆時代文化的變革。

      作者簡介

      姓名:胡譜忠 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:賽音)
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