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       首頁 >> 地區版塊 >> 新疆
      阿迪力·阿布力孜:新疆古代女子的簪與釵
      2019年05月24日 14:56 來源:中國民族報(2019年5月24日) 作者:阿迪力·阿布力孜 字號
      關鍵詞:新疆;銅簪;荊釵;考古調查

      內容摘要:從考古資料來看,新疆各地墓葬中都發現了簪與釵,特別是簪,不僅質地多樣,有骨、木、銅、鐵、金、象牙等,而且不同時代不同地域的簪都各具特色,反映出中原發飾習俗對新疆古代女子的影響。精彩紛呈的銅簪、金簪新疆文物考古研究所收藏的一件保存較好的骨簪,長8.2厘米,球形柄,出土于若羌縣孔雀河古墓溝墓地第20號墓,距今3800年,是新疆境內迄今發現年代最早的簪。漢代以后,隨著西域與中原政治、經濟、文化交流的日益頻繁,西域女子也開始梳發髻,釵這種中原風格的頭飾也傳入西域。從石窟壁畫等圖像資料來看,唐末至宋朝時期高昌回鶻貴族婦女的服飾不僅華貴典雅,她們的發型也受中原文化的影響,梳起了發髻,而且發髻上簪滿了花朵和珠飾。

      關鍵詞:新疆;銅簪;荊釵;考古調查

      作者簡介:

        簪與釵是用于固定或裝飾頭發的一種首飾,是中國古代婦女常見的發飾。從考古資料來看,新疆各地墓葬中都發現了簪與釵,特別是簪,不僅質地多樣,有骨、木、銅、鐵、金、象牙等,而且不同時代不同地域的簪都各具特色,反映出中原發飾習俗對新疆古代女子的影響。

        精彩紛呈的銅簪、金簪

        新疆文物考古研究所收藏的一件保存較好的骨簪,長8.2厘米,球形柄,出土于若羌縣孔雀河古墓溝墓地第20號墓,距今3800年,是新疆境內迄今發現年代最早的簪。

        距今3000年左右,新疆古代居民開始使用銅簪,新疆各地墓葬遺址中發現了很多從西周至漢晉時期的銅簪。2011年至2012年,新疆文物考古研究所對和靜縣莫呼查汗古墓葬進行了搶救性發掘,其中M128號墓出土的銅簪保存完整,長26.4厘米、直徑0.7厘米,一端鑄有立馬一匹,表現出草原游牧文化特色。

        2011年,為配合布爾津縣拉曼水庫建設,新疆文物考古研究所對水庫所涉及的6處墓地進行了考古發掘。其中,博拉提3號墓地6號墓里出土了一枚雞首銅簪,通長17.7厘米、簪首長6.5厘米,頂部有直立的雞形圖案,陰線刻有羽毛和尾部。發掘者認為,該雞形銅簪是春秋中期的文化遺存。

        2004年,新疆考古研究所在伊犁州鞏留縣山口水庫墓地發掘了一件鐵簪。這件鐵簪長12.5厘米、直徑0.3厘米,雖銹蝕嚴重,但依然可以看出其形制,即一端呈圓球狀,一端呈尖狀。鞏留縣山口水庫墓地還出土了一件包金簪頭,直徑2.1厘米,呈圓球狀,用黃金模壓而成,裝飾著花瓣紋和交錯的弧線紋。簪體殘破缺失,從斷口看,簪體為銅質。考古人員還在鞏留縣山口水庫墓地發掘了石眉筆、眉石、三羊紋金耳環、玻璃珠、瑪瑙、珊瑚珠等。這些散發著濃郁生活氣息的飾品,與簪一起構成了新疆古代女子生動的立體生活畫面。

        風情依舊的寶釵

        發釵和發簪在功能上是相同的,但兩者的結構有所不同,發簪通常為一股,而發釵則為雙股。最早的“釵”字被寫作“叉”,因為它的造型如同枝杈。現今發現最早的釵為春秋時期的釵,是用一根完整的動物肢骨做成的,上面還烙有圖案。

        用各種寶物鑲嵌或做成的釵叫寶釵,名貴的寶釵價值連城。與寶釵相對的就是“荊釵”了,最初的荊釵的確是用荊條制成,后來銅鐵之類的發釵也都被叫做“荊釵”。《列女傳》中記載,梁鴻妻孟光“荊釵布裙”。所以,人們還用“荊釵”來代稱貧苦婦女。在新疆考古發現中,很難找到用荊條做成的荊釵,但銅釵相對多見。2016年10月,新疆考古研究所在羅布泊地區進行考古調查,其中一件漢晉時期的銅釵保存完好,呈“U”字形,由細銅條彎曲而成,雙頭較銳利。

        1997年至1998年,巴音郭楞蒙古自治州博物館為配合羅布泊地區的石油勘探開發,對樓蘭古城周邊地區進行考古調查。考古人員在羅布泊西岸采集到一件保存完好的魏晉時期銅釵。銅釵長11厘米、粗0.6厘米,釵頭寬扁,有三道凸棱,之間有一細柱連接。

        1988年至1997年,中日雙方聯合考察隊在民豐縣尼雅遺址進行考古調查,曾采集到一件銅釵。銅釵長15.8厘米、釵頭直徑1厘米、釵身單股直徑0.25厘米,釵身細長,雙股平行,釵頭上飾有一圓形暗紅色瑪瑙。

        在數千年的歷史長河中,簪與釵都經歷了從簡單到復雜的過程。新疆青銅時代和早期鐵器時代簪的質地以骨、木、銅為主,到了漢唐時期,簪上的裝飾也日趨華麗,變化多樣。除了銅簪之外,還出現了金簪、銀簪、象牙簪等。北疆地區墓地遺址出土的銅簪簪首,裝飾著動物和禽類圖案,表現出濃郁的草原游牧文化特色。漢代以后,隨著西域與中原政治、經濟、文化交流的日益頻繁,西域女子也開始梳發髻,釵這種中原風格的頭飾也傳入西域。唐朝時期,中原的錐髻、墮馬髻、低髻、鳥髻、鬟髻、刀髻、烏蠻髻等發型傳入吐魯番高昌,這些千姿百態的發式都需要用簪、釵等來固定。從石窟壁畫等圖像資料來看,唐末至宋朝時期高昌回鶻貴族婦女的服飾不僅華貴典雅,她們的發型也受中原文化的影響,梳起了發髻,而且發髻上簪滿了花朵和珠飾。

      作者簡介

      姓名:阿迪力·阿布力孜 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:賽音)
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