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       首頁 >> 法學
      汪紅飛:尋釁滋事罪法理探究
      2019年05月27日 10:10 來源:《河南科技大學學報:社會科學版》(洛陽)2018年第5期 作者:汪紅飛 字號
      關鍵詞:刑法;法益;尋釁滋事罪

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:刑法;法益;尋釁滋事罪

      作者簡介:

        內容提要:法益具有制約犯罪其他構成要件的機能。尋釁滋事罪的法益包括社會公眾平穩的生活秩序,其特點是社會生活中的任何人都可能成為本罪行為人侵害的潛在對象。尋釁滋事罪與故意傷害罪、搶劫罪等存在競合現象,在排除因競合犯理論適用其他重罪的情形下,尋釁滋事罪才有專屬適用空間,在專屬范圍內需要根據情節限定尋釁滋事行為違法性的下限。尋釁滋事罪行為中的“隨意”“任意”“起哄鬧事”與流氓動機的認定具有同一性,都應當圍繞行為人與被害人是否存在糾紛,其他人可否成為潛在被害人為依據。

        關 鍵 詞:刑法;法益;尋釁滋事罪

        作者簡介:汪紅飛(1972- ),男,浙江淳安人,杭州師范大學法學院副教授,碩士,主要從事中國刑法學研究。杭州 310018

        刑法第293條規定的尋釁滋事罪因其內容概括、外延模糊而容易混淆罪與非罪、此罪與彼罪,被冠以口袋罪之名,司法實踐中被廣泛適用于那些令人厭惡卻又不能構成其他罪或者感覺以其他罪處理不足以滿足罪刑相稱的場合,大有成為侵犯公民人身權利、民主權利罪、侵犯財產罪及妨害社會管理秩序罪三類罪的兜底罪之勢。我國學者張訓認為,刑事政策中的重刑主義、刑法工具主義是導致立法形成口袋罪和司法中曲解罪名助推口袋罪的政策、文化原因;罪狀不明確、司法隨意性是具體原因[1]。

        應當說,刑法理論界已經普遍認識到了尋釁滋事罪的立法特點,或直言“廢除”[2],或從“法教義學”[3]上還原本罪的內涵。最高司法機關也制定了《關于辦理尋釁滋事刑事案件適用法律若干問題的解釋》(以下簡稱《尋釁滋事罪司法解釋》),旨在明確司法適用。然而,尋釁滋事罪的大量適用現象并未減少,據“無訟案例”檢索系統統計,2012-2016年期間尋釁滋事罪案件量增長迅猛,其中浙江省尤甚。2016年浙江省基層法院審結尋釁滋事刑事案件2252件,占全國基層法院審結數的一成多。在眾多尋釁滋事罪判決中,居然出現了以違法上訪擾亂社會秩序為由定罪的判決,令人匪夷所思。如王全成尋釁滋事案,法院認為,王某某以法院枉法裁判為由,借故生非,多次采用非正常途徑到非信訪區域(包括北京重點地區、敏感部位在內)上訪滋事,多次被訓誡、予以行政處罰后仍不思悔改,造成惡劣社會影響,嚴重擾亂了社會秩序,其行為已構成尋釁滋事罪①。

        筆者認為,廢止論過于激進。我同刑法并未規定其他國家刑法中的暴行罪、脅迫罪,廢除本罪將造成處罰漏洞,不符合我國刑法罪名體系,不利于打擊犯罪,保護人民。在立法機關未修正本罪罪狀的情況下,我們應當認真探究本罪的法理,正確理解本罪的構成要件,準確適用刑法。

        一、保護法益與犯罪時空及對象

        刑法規制犯罪行為的目的在于保護法益,換言之,任何犯罪必然侵犯刑法規定的法益,此乃“四要件”犯罪構成體系中包含犯罪客體的原因。暫不論保護法益(即犯罪客體)作為犯罪的成立條件是否合理,但毋庸置疑,犯罪客體具有限定實行行為的功能,具有區分罪與非罪,此罪與彼罪的機能。正如,“向他人水杯投毒”不會危害公共安全,因而不能評價為投放危險物質罪的行為。就尋釁滋事罪的構成要件而言,必須首先確定尋釁滋事罪的客體,而后根據該規范保護目的解釋尋釁滋事罪的其他要件。

        從制定和實施刑法的目的看,任何一個犯罪必然侵犯社會秩序,而非單一的某個人的利益,如故意殺人罪的具體客體是人的生命權,但這時的生命權并不限于具體被害人的生命權,而應當是通過刑法的規制,保護一般人的生命權。但是,某一具體犯罪所侵犯的法益必然受制于同類犯罪侵犯的法益,這是幫助我們理解某一具體罪時應當把握的基本原則。尋釁滋事罪所屬類罪是侵害社會法益的犯罪,有別于侵害特定個人法益的犯罪。侵犯社會法益的犯罪具有侵害不特定多數人合法權益的實質。尋釁滋事罪規定于刑法分則第六章妨害社會管理秩序罪第一節擾亂公共秩序罪中,本罪的罪狀明示“破壞社會秩序”。由此看來,尋釁滋事罪侵犯的同類客體是社會管理秩序,次同類客體是公共秩序,而具體客體又包括社會秩序。從內涵上看,公共秩序也是通過國家機關管理活動而形成的社會秩序,即社會管理秩序與公共秩序實為同義,只是刑法其他章節已經規定了國家機關管理商品質量、對外貿易等活動形成的社會秩序,因而尋釁滋事罪所在的擾亂公共秩序罪所指公共秩序具有內容特定性。擾亂公共秩序罪大體可以分為兩類:一類是諸如妨害公務罪、組織考試作弊罪等妨害國家機關社會管理職能的犯罪,另一類是投放虛假恐怖信息罪、聚眾斗毆罪等損害公眾平穩生產、生活、工作秩序的犯罪。尋釁滋事罪屬于第二類犯罪。根據以上體系解釋,尋釁滋事罪侵害的具體法益應當包括社會公眾平穩的生活秩序,進一步引申,社會生活中的任何一個人都可能成為本罪行為人侵害的潛在對象。

        明確法益與犯罪對象之間的關系,對于區分行為是否成立尋釁滋事罪具有十分重要的意義。例如,家庭成員之間的毆打、辱罵,以不正當的手段對債務人實現債權的行為都不能成立本罪。

        在公共場所實施的違法行為固然可能侵害公眾平穩的生活秩序,但并不能認為發生在公共場所的行為一定侵犯社會公眾平穩的生活秩序。例如,因為情感糾紛,在公共場所打傷對方的行為,并不會損害不特定人的平穩的生活秩序,不能成立擾亂社會秩序罪。還應當注意,侵害公眾平穩的生活秩序的行為并不限于公共場所。例如,因看不慣某人而沖擊被害人的住宅,雖然該具體行為針對的是特定人,但實際上其他人也可能成為被害人,因而這類行為就應當認定為侵害了公眾平穩的生活秩序。尋釁滋事罪所列各項具體實行行為必須侵犯本罪共同的法益,否則難以成為本罪的實行行為,也正因為如此,除第四項侵害公共場所秩序的尋釁滋事行為以外,《尋釁滋事罪司法解釋》在表述前三項行為時,均將破壞社會秩序作為限定語。

        尋釁滋事罪的行為方式及其對象具有多樣性,不僅具有侵害社會公共秩序的共性,還同時侵害其他法益或者又對社會公共秩序進行補正。該罪第一項、第二項行為方式為“隨意毆打他人”“追逐、攔截、辱罵、恐嚇他人”,行為還侵犯了他人的人身權利;該罪第三項行為方式為“強拿硬要或者任意損毀、占用公私財物”,行為還侵犯了他人的財產權;第四項“在公共場所起哄鬧事,造成公共場所秩序嚴重混亂”,起哄鬧事的行為方式多樣,既可能侵犯他人的合法權益,也侵犯公共場所中的公共秩序。

      作者簡介

      姓名:汪紅飛 工作單位:杭州師范大學法學院

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:賽音)
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