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       首頁 >> 法學
      馬連龍:域外和我國臺灣地區證據法中的司法認知規則概覽
      2019年05月27日 10:26 來源:人民法院報(2019年5月24日) 作者:馬連龍 字號
      關鍵詞:司法認知;域外;臺灣地區;證據法

      內容摘要:司法認知的對象司法認知的對象是指適用司法認知規則的客體,即無須當事人予以證明,法官即可在裁判過程中予以確認的對象。司法認知的程序司法認知的程序是指司法認知規則的適用方式和流程,其中最為重要的是司法認知的啟動程序和救濟程序。根據該法,在審判的任何階段都可以作出司法認知,司法認知的啟動有法院依職權啟動和當事人申請啟動兩種,但是當事人申請與否并不影響司法認知的啟動,自由決定是否啟動司法認知的權力最終掌握在法院手中。關于司法認知的救濟程序,美國法賦予了當事人就法院有關司法認知的決定請求舉行聽證的權利:如果當事人對司法認知的適當性和認知事項懷有疑問,其有權請求舉行聽證。

      關鍵詞:司法認知;域外;臺灣地區;證據法

      作者簡介:

        司法認知在本質上是“法官在行使司法權過程中對某些特定事實和法律前提做出的正式認定”,而無須當事人予以證明。司法認知規則作為一項重要的證據規則,在域外的法治實踐中已經逐漸成熟和完善,其在減輕訴訟參與人不必要的舉證責任、提高訴訟程序的效率等方面都顯現出了重要的作用和價值。

        何為司法認知?

        證據法上的司法認知源自羅馬法和教會法時代,它最早來源于一個古羅馬法法彥:“顯著之事,無須證明。”英國高等法院大法官James F. Stephen起草的《印度證據法》最早將司法認知確認為成文法則,主要是為了解決證據法中印度當地習慣法的問題。隨后,Stephen大法官將司法認知規則納入其起草并于1876年公布的《英國證據法》中。

        英國證據法中的司法認知規則對普通法系國家司法認知的發展有著相當大的推動作用。1887年,美國法學家James C.McReynolds希望能夠引進英國證據法中的司法認知規則,于是在《美國證據法》中規定了司法認知。

        大陸法系國家因為實行職權主義訴訟模式,法官擁有很大的自由裁量權,由法官利用職權調查后根據其自由心證來決定能否進行司法認知。因此,與司法認知相關的法律規定相對簡單。

        隨著訴訟法和證據法的不斷發展,司法認知規則也不斷得到豐富和完善。但究竟何為司法認知?世界各國學者們對此觀點不盡相同,歸納總結起來主要有英美法系的證據形式論和大陸法系的司法證明方法論兩大類觀點。

        美國證據法學家華爾茲教授從證據形式的角度分析認為,司法認知是證據的一種形式,審判法官對于屬于社會常識的事實、依據高度可靠的原始資料推論出的證據可以直接認定為本案中已經確定的事實,不必再通過證據加以證明。《布萊克法律辭典》對司法認知的解釋為:“司法認知也稱為司法認定,是指為了方便起見,當事人在訴訟中為自己辯解時,法官有權力不要求當事人證明,就認可一個眾人皆知的和無可爭辯的事實,例如法官對水溫達到零攝氏度時水會結冰這一事實予以司法認知。”

        司法認知在大陸法系則通常被認為是免證方法,如德國民事訴訟法、我國臺灣地區訴訟法中關于司法認知的規定。臺灣學者李學燈認為,認知就是審判上的認知,或者也可以稱為裁判上的認知,“實在系法官于審判中對于事實或法律之認知而言,在中國的司法組織,即指狹義的法院(獨任制之法官或合議制之合議庭)之認知。”

        綜合上述觀點可知,司法認知在本質上都是“法官在行使司法權過程中對某些特定事實和法律前提做出的正式的認定”,而無須當事人予以證明。因此,可以從審判行為和舉證責任兩個角度來定義司法認知:從審判行為的角度來看,司法認知是裁判過程中法官進行事實認定的一種裁判方式;從舉證責任的角度來看,司法認知則是訴訟程序中免除當事人舉證責任的一種證明方式。

      作者簡介

      姓名:馬連龍 工作單位:青海省澤庫縣人民檢察院

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:賽音)
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