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       首頁 >> 法學
      吳岳檣:在法治軌道上改革假釋制度
      2019年06月05日 10:41 來源:中國社會科學網-中國社會科學報 作者:吳岳檣 字號

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        我國刑法中的假釋制度作為對受刑者的一種非監禁刑處置手段,雖然在刑罰理論上已較為成熟,但長期以來在司法實務中仍然適用偏低,使刑罰輕緩化與行刑社會化的目標未能充分實現,也不符合世界刑法的改革潮流和發展趨勢。從規范意義上來說,現有司法體制中三項權力劃分明確,假釋流程看似井然有序,但在實踐中,現有假釋審判程序存在著一定缺陷,不利于罪犯順利復歸社會、不利于修復被破壞的社會秩序。當前,假釋適用制度存在的問題主要表現在程序方面,改革的對象也應主要立足于完善程序,具體包括假釋提請程序、假釋審理程序以及假釋裁定程序等,主要涉及不同司法主體之間權力的行使與職責的分配問題,如監獄部門的假釋提請權、檢察機關的假釋適用監督權以及法院的假釋裁決權等。新時代以習近平同志為核心的黨中央高度重視中國特色社會主義法治建設,極力推進法治理論的創新和法治實踐的發展。在此背景下,假釋適用制度改革迫在眉睫。制度改革需要觀念先行。假釋制度改革的基本理念貫穿于假釋制度改革活動的始終,具有指導和制約假釋制度改革,實現假釋制度功能最大化的功能。結合假釋改革的具體特點和實際需要,以全局性、根本性為標準,以實現假釋功能最大化為目標,堅持貫徹寬嚴相濟刑事政策、實體改革與程序改革并重、改造罪犯與保障人權并行,應作為我國假釋制度改革遵循的基本理念。 

        價值引領:寬嚴相濟的刑事政策 

        在法制層面上,寬嚴相濟的刑事政策是我國一貫秉持的重要刑事司法戰略,在刑事立法、司法、執法等環節中得以貫穿和體現,不僅是假釋制度改革的行動指南,也是司法部門懲處犯罪和保護人民的重要指針。該政策不僅指導刑事司法與立法活動,而且對刑事司法與立法的實現活動即刑罰執行活動也起著至關重要的指導作用。就刑罰執行環節而言,其不僅代表著刑罰的適用及終結,同時它還是刑事司法、立法環節必須緊緊依附的重要環節。此外,刑罰執行環節更是寬嚴相濟原則得以淋漓盡致展現的核心環節。在刑罰執行階段,假釋作為實現刑罰目的之舉措,通過對刑罰執行手段予以變更,根據受刑人不同的情況因地制宜,在“嚴”的一面突出刑罰之報應目的,在“寬”的一面彰顯刑罰之預防目的,對表現不同的受刑人實施有針對性的處置措施,使其順利復歸社會,故必須始終貫徹寬嚴相濟原則,努力實現寬嚴有度、區別處理。就假釋制度而言,在其開始、執行以及法定適用要求的制定上均有寬嚴相濟的縮影。當犯罪分子的種類、情節、身份不盡相同,抑或在假釋條件不盡相同的審判環節中,該項刑事政策亦可以發揮出相應的作用。 

        基于罪犯在服刑環節中的表現優良,對其服刑期限加以縮減或在特定要求滿足的基礎上讓其提前出獄,此為假釋制度的基本內涵。首先,從整體上觀察,假釋制度能夠集中體現寬嚴相濟原則“寬”的一面;在變革假釋制度的環節中,純粹關注寬嚴相濟原則在規范及指引方面的作用是遠遠不夠的。對此,站在“寬”的視角上制定配套的、嚴苛的限制條件,努力在假釋機制中實現“寬”和“嚴”的有機統一亦是應有之義。再者,使寬嚴相濟原則在假釋適用及機制規劃階段中得到全方位的體現,讓犯罪分子受到的懲處舉措同上述機制適用要求的寬嚴保持高度契合。 

        基本途徑:實體改革與程序改革并重 

        程序、實體兩大機制共同組建成了我國現有的假釋機制,在實體方面,其核心內容囊括了假釋的實質要件、考驗機制、對象要件以及撤銷機制等。在程序方面,對于犯罪分子是否具備適用假釋要件,其審查和認定的權力掌握在監獄的手中。倘若犯罪分子滿足法定要求,法院會收到監獄提供的請求適用假釋的建議,而后在此基礎上對各項要素實施全方位、深層次的考量,進而得出是否適用假釋制度的決定,或裁定假釋,或駁回假釋建議。倘若成功適用了假釋機制,其事后監督程序則交由檢察院負責。 

        假釋機制在《刑法》《監獄法》和有關司法解釋當中均可以得到體現。針對假釋程序機制,我國刑法還專門為其制定了例外條款,這在一定程度上可以表明假釋制度的程序性屬性尤為顯著。現階段,國內假釋程序、實體機制仍存在著諸多空白,可相較于實體機制而言,程序機制在實踐操作環節與學術界中均未獲得深層次的探究。其根源在于實體理論方面的弊端較為顯著,加之假釋機制在實踐中遭受著刑事政策的規制及行政機關的壓制,在司法階段中難以實現高度的定型化,亦無法獲得高度的關注。不難看出,欲想假釋的根本宗旨、意義、功能得以貫徹落實,就勢必要緊緊依賴于科學合理的程序及實體機制。唯有借助于程序機制的規劃與適用,才能保證刑罰權得以貫徹執行。在嚴苛、謹慎的程序規制下,通過適用公正的審理機制,確保訴訟當事人、參與人的基本權利得以維護,使訴訟參與人能夠獲得文明與公正的對待,切實維護各類監督機制的運行,方可確保假釋的最終審理結果能夠獲得較高的公信力和社會認同感,從而全方位地體現出實體正義精神。當事人參與訴訟的目的,為求獲得對自己有利的處理結果,故公正的審判結果對于止息紛爭、安撫當事人以及維護社會和諧安定就有至關重要的作用。注重程序公正亦是社會公正對于假釋案件審理的迫切需要,鑒于此,在變革假釋制度的環節中,始終秉持程序與實體并駕齊驅的原則是應有之義。 

        根本保證:矯正罪犯與保障權利并行 

        矯正罪犯是社會的需要,以剝奪限制罪犯的權利為前提,罪犯需要的是自由,以自己的需求欲望不被剝奪為目的。然而,切實維護犯罪分子的權利同改造罪犯之間存在著不可跨越、無法調和的鴻溝。當社會、罪犯人權之間形成本質矛盾時,抑或犯罪分子的人權同國家、社會權益相對立時,站在價值位階的視角上分析,犯罪分子人權略遜一籌,故應將限制人權或剝奪人權視作對罪犯加以改造的基本代價與工具。可從某種層面上來看,保障犯罪分子人權同改造之間并不處于絕對矛盾的狀態,它們之間存在著特定的契合點。就人權而言,自然人的精神及自然特征對其形成產生著決定性的作用,此外,其也是公民權利的一種表現方式。在為犯罪分子創設改造體系的環節中,勢必要考量人性的需求,最大程度地讓犯罪分子重新擁有人生而就有的自由權是改造的根本目的。 

        使權利義務關系得以準確界定是法律的根本要義。有鑒于此,應當對以下要件加以考量:就犯罪分子的改造而言,其應當立足于法制的正當需要,在法制認可的范疇內,適用規范的思想加以引導,借助于合理的手段關心犯罪分子的處境,對罪犯應當享有的正當權利加以研究。再者,基于人權維護的需求,刑事懲罰屬性一定程度上被人們拋諸腦后,強制性流于形式,關懷、保護罪犯被社會大眾所抵制,無法使社會產生人道主義的共鳴。究其本質,一味地突出社會總體權益,未使用合理方式使得罪犯權利得以凸顯,均有悖于法治公正之精神。基于此,在為犯罪分子創設改造體系時,必須站在客觀的視角上加以衡量且要始終保持著嚴苛謹慎的態度,以社會評價為立足點擬定戰略舉措,以嚴苛執法為切入點對具體案件予以處理。 

        個體同社會權益之間的矛盾以及自然人之間權利的對立關系,均對犯罪分子人權的保障及剝奪有著直接作用。法制體系以平等保障人權為切入點,并在嚴格遵循公平、正義原則的指引下,對權利的保障及剝奪加以規定。剝奪權利的原因、范疇以及保留權利的范疇均必須以我國法制體系作為立足點。立足于改造及懲處的視角,犯罪分子在接受再教育的環節中,勢必會承受由監獄所實施的強制性教育手段,倘若在此過程中,犯罪分子始終處于被迫心理或被動接受的狀態,那么其勢必在生理、精神等兩方面感受到很沉重的壓力與苦痛,無法對懲罰舉措中的倫理意義加以正面認可及理解,繼而產生了抵制、憤怒的心理抑或伺機發泄的行為。有鑒于此,唯有對犯罪分子的人權加以維護及認可,使其自我發展、改造的權利得到延展及保障,方可使犯罪分子從內心深處認可、接受監獄部門實施的再教育和改造舉措,從而使得犯罪分子逐漸認可社會共同生活的根本原則。 

        (作者單位:華南理工大學法學院) 

      作者簡介

      姓名:吳岳檣 工作單位:華南理工大學法學院

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