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       首頁 >> 各地 >> 人文華東
      [思想縱橫]宮淑紅:為教育插上數字翅膀
      2019年05月29日 13:56 來源:大眾日報 作者:宮淑紅 字號
      關鍵詞:教育資源;開放教育;教育信息化;人工智能;學習者

      內容摘要:利用大數據技術分析學習者的需求和喜好,提供更有針對性的服務,是教育信息化2.0時期開放教育資源建設與供給的新的形態。

      關鍵詞:教育資源;開放教育;教育信息化;人工智能;學習者

      作者簡介:

        近年來,公開課、微課、慕課等開放教育資源運動的蓬勃發展,在教育領域引起了一場“數字海嘯”,對促進優質教育資源共享、解決教育發展不平衡不充分問題,發揮了重要作用。

        5月16日,國際人工智能與教育大會在北京召開,習近平總書記在致賀信中指出:“中國高度重視人工智能對教育的深刻影響,積極推動人工智能和教育深度融合,促進教育變革創新,充分發揮人工智能優勢,加快發展伴隨每個人一生的教育、平等面向每個人的教育、適合每個人的教育、更加開放靈活的教育。”此前,在2018年9月召開的全國教育大會上,習近平總書記也強調:“要培養德智體美勞全面發展的社會主義建設者和接班人,加快推進教育現代化,建設教育強國,辦好人民滿意的教育。”

        推動人工智能與教育深度融合、加快教育現代化建設,離不開教育信息化的發展。過去十幾年,可以稱為“教育信息化1.0”時期,在這一時期,我國完成了教育信息化的基礎設施建設,以及由行政部門主導的教育信息化實踐和人才培養。而當前正在推進的“教育信息化2.0”則意味著一個質的變化。如果說教育信息化1.0是引入外部變量的話,那么,教育信息化2.0就是要把這些外生變量轉化成內生變量。教育部2018年4月印發的《教育信息化2.0行動計劃》提出了教育信息化到2020年基本實現“三全兩高一大”的發展目標,即教學應用覆蓋全體教師、學習應用覆蓋全體適齡學生、數字校園建設覆蓋全體學校,信息化應用水平和師生信息素養普遍提高,建成“互聯網+教育”大平臺。

        教育信息化2.0時期的開放教育資源,具有開放、共享、平等、創新、參與、智能等特點。因此,教育信息化2.0背景下智能化、生態化的開放教育資源建設,是我國教育信息化的重要環節,有利于促進優質教育資源共享,解決我國長期存在的教育發展不均衡的問題。同時,我們應該看到,當前的開放教育資源建設,在建設理念、建設主體、應用主體等方面仍面臨著一定挑戰。

        開放教育資源的建設理念需要從為“教”服務轉變到為“學”服務。目前的開放教育資源為了滿足教師需求,以教為主的內容較多,而專門為網絡學習而設計開發的、以學為主的教育資源較少。在現代社會,傳統的以知識傳授與標準化考試為特征的學習文化,正在慢慢轉變為以個性化學習能力、創造性解決問題為特征的學習文化,因此,開放教育資源建設中,首先要轉變對學習文化的理解,注重建設智能化、生態化、互動性、成長性的教育資源,促進學生的創造力培養與多樣化發展。近年來,公開課、微課、慕課蓬勃發展,在教育領域引起了一場“數字海嘯”,全球開放教育資源運動迅速發展,產生了開放、共享、公平的互聯網學習生態。從技術發展的方面看,傳統的教育資源主要是與教材配套的課件和習題等,不能滿足教育信息化2.0時代學習者的個別化需求。隨著對學習科學研究的不斷深入,以及大數據技術、人工智能技術、虛擬現實技術等的不斷發展,當前迫切需要先進學習觀念和新智能技術相結合的開放教育資源建設,以適應信息化2.0時代學習者學習方式的轉變,適應學習者個性化自主學習、終身學習、隨時隨地學習的需求。

        開放教育資源的建設主體需要向多元化轉變。開放教育資源的建設主體越來越趨向于多元化,可以是教育行政部門招標購買,可以是教育信息化企業提供,可以是國外的免費資源,可以是公共服務體系,還有的是學校層面推動的課程建設,有的是教師個人根據教學需求開發,也有的是學生自主開發共享的資源。尤其是用戶生產內容,學習者借助網絡進行合作和共享,產生了大量具有成長性發展性的開放教育資源,其中很多內容是來自草根階層自下而上的貢獻。建設主體的多元化,有利于開放教育資源的百花齊放,有利于教育資源建設機制的創新,有利于提高教育資源的質量水平。在這個過程中,要明確不同主體的責任以及所提供資源和服務的領域,既要有系統統籌,又要有個性化服務。建設完成的開放教育資源,要采取多種措施、通過多種渠道進行創新推廣應用。通過電子圖書館、電子博物館等公共網站提高開放教育資源服務水平,加強網絡學習共同體的構建,為學習者提供更多交流互動的網絡空間。

        開放教育資源的實踐應用層面要更加注重人的培養。教育信息化2.0計劃采用整體推進結合試點先行的形式,在這個實踐過程中,人是最關鍵的因素。教育行政部門領導的信息化領導能力,是推動開放教育資源實踐應用的行政推動力量,因此要進行教育行政部門人員教育信息化領導力培訓。對于教師,開放教育資源的獲取與創新性應用是實踐應用的關鍵。要做好職前教師培養和職后教師培訓,可以采用網絡培訓的方式培訓教師,教師作為學習者在線學習教與學的理念創新、開放教育資源的建設與應用模式等。開放教育資源的實踐應用必須落實到學習者本身才能真正發揮應有的作用,轉變學習者的學習觀念,引導學習者終身學習力的養成,提高學習者的信息素養,是學習者充分利用開放教育資源的必要條件。師生要從教育信息化1.0時代的信息技術應用能力培養轉向2.0時代信息素養的提高,能夠具有批判精神,創造性地解決學與教中的問題。利用大數據技術分析學習者的需求和喜好,提供更有針對性的服務,是教育信息化2.0時期開放教育資源建設與供給的新的形態。

        (作者系山東師范大學新聞與傳媒學院教授)

      作者簡介

      姓名:宮淑紅 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:張彥)
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