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      自由探索會給四川科技創新帶來什么?
      2019年06月03日 09:57 來源:四川日報 作者:熊筱偉 字號

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        四川省首次推出“自由探索型”基礎研究項目,讓科學家自由探索

        自由探索,到底有多自由?

        不限項,沒有名額分配,各科研單位自由競爭

        不限領域,政府部門不指定重點支持領域

        允許自由探索、寬容失敗

        讓科學家敢于去“碰”那些周期長、失敗可能性高的課題

        改變人類的不少科研成果,都來自科學家的隨意自由探索。

        科學家撿別人粘過石墨的膠帶來研究,發現石墨烯;拯救了無數人的青霉素,是對一個忘記清洗的培養皿進行研究的意外結果……為此,國內多位院士級專家呼吁,給予科學家更大自由度,實現基礎研究和原始創新領域的重要突破。

        四川在這方面邁出了第一步。省科技廳近日明確了100個“自由探索型”基礎研究項目。這是我省科技計劃項目中首次出現“自由探索型”這個門類。

        自由探索會給四川科技創新帶來什么?5月30日,記者就此采訪了相關人士。□記者 熊筱偉

        何為自由探索

        怎么理解“自由探索”?省科技廳相關負責人總結了“兩個不”:不限項、不限領域。

        不限項,沒有名額分配,各科研單位自由競爭。此前,省內各個高校院所能獲得多少個基礎研究項目申報資格,由政府部門統一分配。“統一分配,到校的指標有限,年輕老師獲得的幾率很小。”西南交大一位科研人員說。省科技廳負責人表示,限項考慮到區域和高校平衡,避免項目全集中在成都幾所實力強勁的高校中。

        不限領域,就是政府部門不指定重點支持領域。在我省《2019年度應用基礎研究項目申報指南》中有清晰的體現:對傳統的“需求引導型”項目,文中列出了軍民融合、網絡空間安全與電子信息技術等15個領域,每個領域下還細分具體方向,而“自由探索型”則無此要求。上述負責人介紹,傳統項目鼓勵服務省委省政府確定的重大產業發展技術需求等,而自由探索更強調自由創造。

        他表示,“自由探索型”基礎研究項目將長期實施。每個項目支持經費不超過10萬元,項目研究周期一般為2年-3年。

        自由探索的意義何在

        為什么全省只有基礎研究項目,才有“自由探索型”這個門類?

        回答問題前,省科技促進發展研究中心副主任王楠講了陳景潤的故事:很多人都知道他證明了數學界的世界難題——哥德巴赫猜想,但很少人知道,其背后是政府部門數十年如一日的經費支持,以及對他研究方向的不限制。

        王楠想表達的是:越來越多人認識到基礎研究很重要,認識到它是整個科學體系的源頭,但很少有人知道基礎研究有多難,“本質上說它就是對人類未知的探索,很難知道方向在哪兒、會不會成功。”

        多位受訪者提到,長期以來國內對科研人員“出成果”的壓力較大,導致基礎研究領域部分科學家不敢去“碰”周期長、失敗可能性高的原創性課題,而專挑容易出成果的“短平快”項目。

        “自由探索型”基礎研究項目可解決這一問題。除了不限領域、不限題目外,它也通過機制創新進一步鼓勵探索、寬容失敗。

        “自由探索型”基礎研究項目評審專家組組長、西華大學副校長余孝其表示,項目更重視想法,“喜歡那些前人沒有過的想法和思考,只要符合科學規律就行。”省科技廳負責人則表示,研究過程中若發現“此路不通”可提前中止項目,不會要求一定要拿出成果,更不會追責。

        記者隨機采訪5位“自由探索型”基礎研究項目負責人,他們對項目成功率的估計在50%到70%之間。同時,他們也提到這類項目對年輕科學家的特別意義。此次“自由探索型”基礎研究項目負責人年齡被限制在40歲以下。在電子科大電子科學與工程學院講師龔天巡看來,這樣有助于積累,以便未來申請更大項目。

        有何期待和建議

        談到期待和建議,幾乎所有受訪者都提到:省內像這樣的項目,數量能否再多點?

        “申請省內‘自由探索型’基礎研究項目,比申請國家自然科學基金青年基金還難!”西南石油大學一位年輕科學家感慨,同樣支持基礎研究,國家上述基金大概5個團隊競爭一個名額,而省里“自由探索型”基礎研究項目是13個團隊競爭一個。省科技廳提供數據顯示,進入評審環節的項目有1313個,最終立項的僅100個。

        除了數量少,還有范圍和支持力度相對較小。

        “這主要是受財力限制。”省科技廳相關負責人表示,在有限財力下,更傾向支持更需要這筆經費的、思維更活躍的年輕人,“這100個項目更像一次試水,它們的執行情況很大程度上會影響未來的支持力度。”

        在王楠看來,建立對“自由探索型”基礎研究項目結果的考核評價機制是一大難點。“‘自由探索型’基礎研究項目寬容失敗,從考核‘產出了什么’變為考核‘做了什么’,這需要新的考核方法和評價體系。”

      作者簡介

      姓名:熊筱偉 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:張彥)
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