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       首頁 >> 管理學
      點燃改革引擎 激發創新活力
      2019年06月10日 10:22 來源:經濟日報 作者:陳強 孫福全 字號
      關鍵詞:科技決策;評價制度;科技創新;科技;科技成果轉化

      內容摘要:改革開放以來,我國不同階段的科技體制改革,都在一定程度上釋放了科技創新活力。進入新世紀后,科學技術呈加速發展趨勢健全科技決策“大腦”這些年來,我國很重視發揮科技決策咨詢的作用。但就總體而言,科技決策領域的社會參與度還不夠高。《國家中長期科學和技術發展規劃綱要(2006—2020年)》提出

      關鍵詞:科技決策;評價制度;科技創新;科技;科技成果轉化

      作者簡介:

        改革開放以來,我國不同階段的科技體制改革,都在一定程度上釋放了科技創新活力。進入新世紀后,科學技術呈加速發展趨勢,迭代周期越來越短,科技創新模式和科研組織形式也悄然發生變化,科技體制不斷面臨新情況和新問題。例如,重大科技決策及相關政策設計如何適應科技發展的快節奏,科技評價制度如何滿足科技與經濟結合的現實需求,如何提高科技成果轉化系統的整體效率等。黨的十八大以來,以習近平同志為核心的黨中央把科技創新擺在黨和國家發展全局的核心位置,對實施創新驅動發展戰略、深化科技體制改革作出頂層設計和系統部署。黨的十九大報告強調,“深化科技體制改革,建立以企業為主體、市場為導向、產學研深度融合的技術創新體系”,我們要堅持以深化改革激發創新活力,打通科技和經濟社會發展通道,不斷釋放創新潛能,加速聚集創新要素,提升創新體系效能。

        健全科技決策“大腦”

        這些年來,我國很重視發揮科技決策咨詢的作用。但就總體而言,科技決策領域的社會參與度還不夠高。《國家中長期科學和技術發展規劃綱要(2006—2020年)》提出,在科技計劃項目實施中加強與公眾溝通交流。習近平總書記強調,“要加快建立科技咨詢支撐行政決策的科技決策機制”。

        進一步健全科技決策的“大腦”,需要重視發揮國家科技領導小組在研究國家科技發展戰略規劃、促進創新開放合作,推動落實賦予科研機構和人員更大自主權政策等方面的重要作用;發揮國家科技咨詢委員會為重大科技決策提供咨詢建議的作用。同時,還要注重發揮智庫和專業研究機構的作用,完善科技決策機制,提高科學決策能力。

        用好科技評價“指揮棒”

        科技評價是創新主體行為的“指揮棒”,科技決策制定和資源配置也與其相關。我國的科技評價工作一直比較受重視。早在2003年,有關部門就發布了《關于改進科學技術評價工作的決定》,隨后印發《科學技術評價辦法》,以規范科學技術評價行為,引導科學技術健康發展。2016年,習近平總書記在全國科技創新大會、兩院院士大會、中國科協第九次全國代表大會上的講話中強調,“要改革科技評價制度,建立以科技創新質量、貢獻、績效為導向的分類評價體系,正確評價科技創新成果的科學價值、技術價值、經濟價值、社會價值、文化價值”。2016年12月,《科技評估工作規定(試行)》頒布,適用范圍包括國家科技規劃和科技政策、中央財政資金支持的科技計劃(專項、基金等)及項目、科研機構、項目管理專業機構等的評估。2017年10月,《中央級科研事業單位績效評價暫行辦法》印發,結合科研事業單位職責定位,將中央級科研事業單位分為基礎前沿研究、公益性研究、應用技術研發等三類進行評價。2018年,《關于深化項目評審、人才評價、機構評估改革的意見》發布實施,以構建科學、規范、高效、誠信的科技評價體系。可見,我們已形成較為系統的科技評價制度。

        但在現實中,科技評價制度實施的效果與預期還有一定差距,尚需加快建立以質量、績效和貢獻為導向的科技評價體系,強化科技評價制度實施機制,引入專業機構和社會力量,準確衡量科技創新的價值。

        打造科技創新資源集聚的“強磁場”

        習近平總書記強調,“要完善符合科技創新規律的資源配置方式,解決簡單套用行政預算和財務管理方法管理科技資源等問題,優化基礎研究、戰略高技術研究、社會公益類研究的支持方式,力求科技創新活動效率最大化”。為優化科技創新資源配置方式,把科技創新資源配置到最恰當、效率最高的領域,應結合科技創新發展新趨勢,把打造科技創新資源集聚的“強磁場”作為深化科技體制改革的重要著力點。

        隨著移動互聯網、云計算、大數據以及人工智能等技術的發展,科技創新資源的集聚和開發利用呈現出社會化、平臺化、網絡化等新趨勢。順應這一趨勢,需要密切關注科技創新資源獲取、分享和利用形式的變化,以及未來科技創新模式的演變趨勢,嘗試在更大范圍內整合全社會的科技創新資源,進行資源互聯互通的頂層設計,打破創新資源在組織、領域、區域間流動的各種阻隔,構建開放包容的創新生態系統;大力支持科技服務和科技金融發展,發現并培育新型研發組織,尤其是有利于整合創新資源和能力的平臺型研發組織;著力構建社會創新支撐服務體系,營造有利于創新的社會氛圍;等等。

        打通科技成果轉化的“任督二脈”

        黨中央、國務院高度重視科技成果轉化工作,出臺了一系列鼓勵科技成果轉化的政策措施,有力地促進了科技成果向現實生產力轉化。但在科技和經濟社會發展關聯方面,“兩張皮”現象仍在一定程度上存在。要解決這一問題,不能“頭痛醫頭,腳痛醫腳”,必須對科技成果轉移轉化的原創系統、轉化系統、管理系統和服務系統進行系統診斷,不僅要著力化解科技成果供給側和需求側存在的各種癥結,還要將系統之間和系統內部的障礙和阻隔漸次排除。要深入推進國家科技成果轉移轉化示范區建設,充分發揮國家科技成果轉化引導基金作用。要強化企業在科技成果轉化中的主體地位,深化科技與金融融合,最大限度調動科技成果各轉化主體的積極性,使得科技成果轉化應用更順暢。

       (作者單位:同濟大學經濟與管理學院、科技部中國科技發展戰略研究院)

      作者簡介

      姓名:陳強 孫福全 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:閆琪)
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