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       首頁 >> 工商管理
      五位一體 整合協同推進 激發省屬國企高管企業家精神
      2019年06月10日 10:27 來源:經濟參考報 作者:吳東文 辛宇 字號
      關鍵詞:企業家精神;任期;國企;團隊成員;董事長

      內容摘要:我國國有產權行使方式的特色之一是通過中央、各省、市縣等多個層級,分別由各級人民政府來代表終極的產權所有者來分級行使國有產權。我國目前的國資監管體系,主要還是強調從上到下的一致性和整體性,對各級國有資本的約束條件、特殊屬性和異質性特征的考慮還明顯不足。

      關鍵詞:企業家精神;任期;國企;團隊成員;董事長

      作者簡介:

        我國國有產權行使方式的特色之一是通過中央、各省、市縣等多個層級,分別由各級人民政府來代表終極的產權所有者來分級行使國有產權。省屬(含省級市,下同)國企的改革在整個國企改革過程中具有舉足輕重的樞紐地位:一方面,其擔負著推動全省經濟發展的重責大任,而且由于各省份之間的競爭關系,需要引入更多的市場化導向的經濟目標;另一方面,由于其能夠整合全省的國有資源進行市場化配置,規模體量足夠豐厚,可以也應該并且能夠在更加廣泛的空間大有作為。

        我國目前的國資監管體系,主要還是強調從上到下的一致性和整體性,對各級國有資本的約束條件、特殊屬性和異質性特征的考慮還明顯不足。此時,我們認為,省屬國企的改革可以也應該并且能夠邁出新的步伐,重點突破若干關鍵環節,進而為國企改革提供豐富經驗和發展思路。

        要創新省屬國企的治理結構,首要任務是激發以董事長為代表的企業高管的企業家精神。企業家精神涵蓋戰略思維、管理能力、機會捕捉、創新創業、風險承擔、失敗容忍、誠信敬業、合作共贏、責任意識、貢獻社會等多個方面,在有效整合企業的各項人、財、物及無形資產等各種生產要素資源,協調資源提供者和更加廣泛的利益相關者之間的利益分配關系等方面具有核心地位,牽一發而動全身。要將省屬國企高管尤其是董事長的企業家精神有效地激發出來,需要我們在改革思路上大膽創新、重點突破。我們認為,這是一項系統工程,需要做整合層面的體系性思考,包括職位設置(“帽子”)、團隊組建(“班子”)、激勵機制(“票子”)、任期保障(“日子”)、信息公開(“里子”)等五個方面,五位一體、整合協同推進,都應該在經過規范流程后的省屬國企董事長的契約結構安排和激勵約束機制中有所體現。

        職位設置,即“帽子”,是指省委組織部門和國資監管部門(含國有資本投資運營公司)擬任命的省屬國企的董事長職位。所任命的董事長,尤其是處于商業競爭類行業的董事長,一定要遴選出真正具有企業家精神的人選擔任。應明確該職位的選聘標準、待遇安排、經營目標和考核要求,采用體制內部選拔和市場化選聘相結合的方法,雙向選擇,因企擇人、因人選企,徹底實現職位、權力、責任、績效、薪酬的相統一,解決早前一直在不同程度上存在的不統一、不對等、不協調的問題。

        團隊組建,即“班子”,賦予省屬國企董事長在一定程度上對公司治理團隊成員(主要是董事會成員和高管團隊成員)充分醞釀和討論基礎上的提名權,甚至建議任免權。例如,董事長可以擁有對擬任企業三分之一左右治理團隊成員的提名權,以體現責任、權利與義務之間的匹配和對等。相應地,從擬任企業輪出的治理團隊成員則納入相應組織部門統籌管理,建立能上能下、雙向選擇、市場化選拔的動態人才管理機制。畢竟企業家不是一個人在工作,企業家精神能夠充分激發,團隊成員的支持和配合也是非常重要的。

        激勵機制,即“票子”,是指對省屬國企董事長及其治理團隊的績效考核制度和薪酬安排。應結合企業經營目標、管理難度、行業競爭情況、對標企業做法、候選人個人背景等因素,了解更為充分、全面的信息,明確關鍵問題,進而形成更為周延的考核預期和業績要求,制定出符合參與約束和激勵相容約束的、內在邏輯一致的經營契約、薪酬安排和考核制度。此時,企業的董事會成員,尤其是薪酬委員會成員和非執行董事,應該充分發揮其獨立性和專業勝任能力,制定出恰當的考核約束機制和薪酬激勵安排,既要“真約束”,更要“真激勵”。

        任期保障,即“日子”,是指省屬國企的董事長任期應該得到較高程度的保障。除非出現約定的、極其特殊的例外事項,如重大的舞弊嫌疑、重大疾病導致勝任能力發生實質性變化等,省屬國企的董事長任期應該相對穩定,不宜基于其他因素的考慮而進行過于頻繁的職位調動。任期屆滿后,再根據經濟責任審計和考核評價的結果,作出是否繼續新的任期或調整到其他崗位等具體安排。相對較長的任期保障制度(如5年一個任期),可以在較大程度上避免國有企業中存在的短期行為問題,以及在高管繼任過程中可能面臨的非連貫性及難考核性等問題。

        信息公開,即“里子”,是指省屬國企的信息環境建設。一方面,省屬國企的董事長在正式任命及赴任之前,應該擁有足夠的知情權;省屬國企的資產質量、財務狀況、重大經營決策、主要經營情況、歷史遺留問題等信息,以及巡視、審計、紀檢、監察、監事等監管機構發現的重大問題等,均應向其做比較全面的介紹和通報,從而早做準備、明確未來任期內的風險情況及業績預期和考核要求及薪酬激勵,做好銜接,以降低信息不對稱程度,解決盲目用人問題和“新官不理舊賬”問題。另一方面,省屬國企要高度重視信息披露及信息透明度的提升,這是省屬國企治理環境建設的基礎設施;透明度的提升,可以有效地調動社會監督的力量,從而大幅度地降低監督成本、提升監管效能,而且從終極所有權的角度來看,國有企業既然屬于全民所有,那么通過提升透明度來體現這一全民所有的產權屬性也是非常必要的。

        總體來看,通過系統性的公司治理結構創新,在職位設置(“帽子”)、團隊組建(“班子”)、激勵機制(“票子”)、任期保障(“日子”)、信息公開(“里子”)等五個方面,五位一體、整合協同推進,可以有效地激發以董事長為代表的省屬國企高管團隊敢于擔當的企業家精神,釋放和煥發省屬國企的蓬勃活力,進而能夠在各省的經濟發展過程中,充分發揮國有經濟及省屬國企的引領和帶動功能。這樣的機制設計,雖然可能會導致醞釀時間有所延長,但是由于所考慮的因素更為全面、周延,所形成的治理結構更為健全、合理,通常會好于“突然空降”或“體系內部小范圍選拔”的模式,從而為省屬國有企業未來的健康發展打下堅實基礎。因此,在當前確有必要凝聚改革共識并開展深入討論,明確領導機構并進行充分協調,進而在試點的基礎上積累經驗并在總結完善后予以推廣。

       (本文系國家社科基金重大項目“國有企業監督制度改革與創新研究(17ZDA086)”階段性成果。作者單位:廣東省工業和信息化廳;中山大學現代會計與財務研究中心/管理學院。)

      作者簡介

      姓名:吳東文 辛宇 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:閆琪)
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