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       首頁 >> 圖書情報學
      學術評價相關問題與思考
      2018年12月06日 16:43 來源:信息資源管理學報 作者:蘇新寧 王東波 字號

      內容摘要:隨著大數據和人工智能的發展,學術評價的對象以及學術評價的深度和廣度都發生了重大的變化。在這一背景下,本文對學術評價的現狀和未來的發展趨勢進行了探究,在總結了學術評價相應研究的基礎上,對學術評價以刊評文、唯期刊馬首是瞻、過度量化、唯數字是從和影響因子至上、唯排名是舉等現狀進行了概括。在目前學術評價研究的基礎上,從學術評價應強調發現學術規律,重點關注未來科學發展,淡化數量考察、強調成果質量、水平和創新,跳出以刊評文和排行榜的羈絆,強化中國科技期刊強國戰略五個維度上對學術評價未來的發展趨勢進行了深入思考。

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        1 引言   

        學術評價是指針對學術成果的學術貢獻、學術創新、學術價值、學術影響以及社會影響、應用價值、經濟效益等方面的評估。本質上對學術研究具有促進、監督、規范、傳播等積極的引導作用。但隨著學術評價的定量化趨勢、科研管理的簡單化操作,學術評價的“量”與科研管理中的獎勵制度緊密捆綁在一起,刺激了學術界急功近利的思想和行為,嚴重干擾了學術研究,敗壞了學術風氣,造成了學術亂象。   

        無論是國際學術界,還是國內學術界和科研管理部門都已看到了這個問題,也都非常重視。2013年在美國細胞生物學(ASCB)年會上討論了科學研究成果的評價問題,發出了《舊金山宣言》[1],宣言中指出:基金資助機構、學術機構以及其他組織均急切需要改進科研成果的評價方式:強調基于論文引用的評估指標,尤其是影響因子,遭到了誤用并有害于科研共同體:倡導科研成果的評估不要過度依賴基于期刊的指標。2015年Nature雜志發布了Diana Hicks、Paul Wouters等人的《萊頓宣言》[2],該宣言主要針對科研評價中存在的問題,提出了如何正確使用這些指標和如何進行科研評價的十大原則。   

        在中國,學術界許多學者直接把一些學術不端、學術亂象歸咎于學術評價。在一份學術成果問題調查報告中,有48.7%的被調查者認為,是不合理的評價體系造成了學術亂象[3]。蘇宏斌認為,當今學術評價已經對正常的學術研究造成了嚴重干擾[4];張曙光認為,當下學術亂象橫生,過度量化評價有著不可推卸的責任[5];余三定在《人民日報》上撰文,直指學術評價是造成“學術錯亂”的推手[6];朱劍認為造成“學術亂象”的根源是科研體制[7],等等。正是由于諸多問題,國務院辦公廳2015年12月專門發文闡述了《關于優化學術環境的指導意見》,要求“健全激勵創新的學術評價體系和導向機制”[8]。2018年5月中共中央辦公廳、國務院辦公廳印發了《關于進一步加強科研誠信建設的若干意見》的文件[9],從科研誠信的角度對學術評價體系的構建和實施給出了具體的建議和措施。   

        由此可見,全球學術領域與有關政府機構都十分關注學術評價問題。基于上述國內外背景,本文在對相關學術評價體系和評價內容進行梳理的基礎上,對學術評價帶來的問題進行了深入思考,并對如何科學地有針對性地展開學術評價提出了相應的建議和措施。   

         2 學術評價簡述   

        近半個世紀以來,隨著文獻計量學的發展和對學術評價的推動,學術評價逐漸由以定性評價(同行評議)為主導向定量評價為主導轉移。隨著評價理念與技術的演進和發展,學術評價也由單元主體向多元主體轉換。目前學術評價體系主要由同行評議、定量化學術評價和新的定量化學術評價三個部分構成。這三個部分各有側重,單一評價都存在不足,只有結合起來才能逐漸趨于完善。如下對這三個方面進行一個簡單總結。   

        同行評議是學術界對科研項目和學術成果進行主觀評價的一種方法。對這一定義進行最早界定并有一定影響力的研究者為Chubin[10]和Gibbons[11]。根據所涉及同行人數的數量,同行評議主要由單隱(Single-Blind Review或Single Masked Review)、雙隱(Double-Blind Review或Double Masked Review)和公開評議(Open Review)三種類型構成。結合中國同行評議的實踐進程,有學者進行了探究。從累計數、命中率、離散率等不同的角度,針對國家自然科學基金的立項和研究推進情況,趙黎明[12]對同行評議在國家自然科學基金上的實施情況進行了全面的探究。針對同行評議定量評估的問題,結合國家自然科學基金的具體項目數據,王成紅[13]設計了數學模型,并提出了定量的評估指標。在系統地總結國家自然科學基金同行評議執行的總體情況基礎上,何杰[14]通過具體的數據,說明了同行評議存在的必要性和不足之處。針對透明性、公開性、公平性和公正性的特性,通過對比和分析開放式同行評議與已有的封閉式同行評議,王鳳產[15]系統地說明了開放式同行評議的優勢之所在。針對期刊同行評議中存在的造假和不端行為,趙艷靜[16]和王謙[17]分別從技術、流程和制度的層面對審稿過程中可能存在的同行評議的弊端進行了分析,提出了有針對性的應對措施。   

        定量評價是基于論文、專著、科研項目、研究報告、專利等研究成果的數量或者等級,結合不同的評價指標,由相應的科研管理機構完成的對研究者的研究水平、能力和工作績效的一種評價活動。在定量評價中,目前主要使用的方法是引文分析法。隨著1961年《科學引文索引》的創刊,引文分析法成了文獻計量學的核心方法。1972年,加菲爾德[18]首次提出了影響因子的概念并把這一概念引入到了期刊評價中。隨后,Macroberts[19]分析了引文的動機,并從負面的角度分析了引文分析的不足之處。結合相應的數據,Moed[20]指出由于不同學科和不同期刊在質量上的差異性,導致了不能使用影響因子對不同學科和期刊使用同一標準。

      作者簡介

      姓名:蘇新寧 王東波 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:閆琪)
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