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       首頁 >> 文萃
      【文萃】侯旭東:“制度”如何成為了“制度史”
      2019年05月29日 14:34 來源:《中國社會科學評價》2019年第1期 作者:侯旭東 字號
      關鍵詞:制度;制度史;杜佑《通典》新史學;變法

      內容摘要:“制度”一詞古已有之,頗為常見,“制度史”則是近代以來產生的史學新分類。古今都在使用“制度”一詞,背后含義是否一致?古人眼中的“制度”與今人所說的“制度史”是一回事嗎?有必要做一番梳理。

      關鍵詞:制度;制度史;杜佑《通典》新史學;變法

      作者簡介:

        “制度”一詞古已有之,頗為常見,“制度史”則是近代以來產生的史學新分類。古今都在使用“制度”一詞,背后含義是否一致?古人眼中的“制度”與今人所說的“制度史”是一回事嗎?有必要做一番梳理。

      一、古人眼中的“制度”

        今天學界多半將《通典》視為首部制度通史,如果將“制度史”的源頭上溯到《通典》的話,我們不能忽略,杜佑心目中的制度并非與人、時、事相隔離的孤立存在,在他看來,簡單地就“經國禮法程制”論“經國禮法程制”,無從了解其歷代沿革廢置。杜佑在《進〈理道要訣〉表》中將《通典》收羅的內容統稱為“事”。唐人心目中的“事”指涉甚廣,今人眼中的“制度”不過是“過去的事”(故事)。

        再來看看《文獻通考》。《文獻通考》內容上較《通典》有擴充,體例上則基本踵隨杜佑,由“敘事”與“論事”之說看,馬端臨同樣是將“典章經制”納入“事”來統攝。典章制度與人事密而不分。

        檢視完杜佑與馬端臨的看法,不妨看看其他古人眼中的“制度”。唐人孔穎達認為制度為王者模仿天地運行而確立的規矩,以保證人世間有序運行。孔穎達與程頤的解釋均注意到“制度”原是對天道的模仿,由王者或圣人來創立,目的是讓人世間運轉有序,不過“節以制度”中的“制度”尚保留了該詞動賓詞組的含義,而兩位的解釋中均將其名詞化了。當然,古人心目中的“制度”所指,包含甚廣,從正朔、律歷、禮樂到輿服、顏色等,要比今人的理解豐富得多。

        古文經學占據統治地位后,《周禮》實際就成為“圣人立制”最為集中的體現,不同時期的改制者常常返諸《周禮》尋找變革的依據,最著名的莫過于王莽、拓跋宏、蘇綽與王安石。

        據《禮記·禮運》,“設制度”乃發端于“大道既隱、天下為家”的小康階段,是“城郭溝池以為固、禮義以為紀”下的無奈之舉,因時因事因勢而變,頗為正常。因此,在古人心目中,因應于天道之外的“制度”不過是小康時代王朝行事所設置、所依托的例行性安排,有常有變有權,皇帝詔令或臣僚奏章常因時因勢圍繞制度產生議論與損益,內涵豐富,并沒有今人以為的那么單一性的強烈規范意義。

        的確,“制度”獨立成類,成“史”,經歷了漫長的演變,從“典故”到“政書”,最終是在20世紀才一躍成為新史學中單獨的專史。至少從宋代開始,已將《通典》歸入“典故類”,認為是“載古今制度沿革”但“非類書”,這些關于制度沿革的論述與君臣關于為政的論述依然屬于一類,仍不脫“政事”范圍。《四庫全書總目提要》據錢溥《秘閣書目》立“政書”類,將《通典》列于首,亦是視之為關于國政朝章的前代故事,用途乃后代取資前朝,根據當時需要而損益的依憑。

        今人所理解的相對狹窄的“制度”與“制度史”的源頭,正是《通典》以降形成的“典故”“政書”的傳統,其內涵較之漢代今文經學家的看法精簡了許多,正朔、律歷、服色、徽號之類很少再納入視野,占據核心的是涉及“國政朝章”的部分。這種變化背后是天人感應觀念的逐漸淡出。

      二、“制度”如何成為了“制度史”

        進入20世紀之后,知識界才開始將《通典》視為與紀事不同的紀“制度”之書。1902年,梁啟超在《新史學》中說:“杜君卿《通典》之作,不紀事而紀制度,制度于國民全體之關系,有重于事焉者也。前此所無而杜創之”。顯然,任公這里所謂“事”與“制度”的分別與對立,以及“制度”高于“事”的地位,已與杜佑的表達頗有距離。浮現于梁任公腦際的史學記述對象,已是人/事/制度鼎足而三,而在杜佑眼中,不過是人/事兩類。

        這種微妙的變化背后,是19世紀中葉以來尋求體制變革所帶來的史學研究中“制度”意義與價值的突起,“事”內涵收縮,“制度”逐漸凌駕于“事”之上,獲得了更為根本性的意義,進而從原先的附庸位置掙脫而出,自成門戶。

        西方沖擊,特別是甲午戰敗對清代讀書人觸動頗大,進一步推動史學走向致用,表現之一便是關注內容的變化,一端就是典制、掌故受到空前的重視。19世紀末,正如學者所指出的,“被認為是能夠關切世用的典章制度史,此時幾乎成為講授史學的主要項目”。盡管當時尚無“典章制度史”的說法,但關注“典制”與“掌故”,的確構成“制度”獨立成史并崛起的內在源頭之一。

      作者簡介

      姓名:侯旭東 工作單位:清華大學人文學院歷史系

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:張振)
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