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       首頁 >> 理論經濟學
      劉鴻武:構建獨具特色的中國非洲學
      2019年06月10日 09:53 來源:人民日報 作者:劉鴻武 字號

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        從正在做的事情出發

        非洲研究大有可為(學苑論衡)

        

        中國是世界最大的發展中國家,非洲是發展中國家最集中的大陸。中非友誼源遠流長,當前中非合作日益密切。近年來,越來越多的中國學者把目光投向非洲,中國的非洲研究取得了不少有價值的成果。面對構建更加緊密的中非命運共同體的要求,應進一步提升對非洲研究重要性的認識,拓展研究的廣度和深度,加快形成專門化的認識非洲、理解非洲、溝通非洲的知識體系、理論體系,為構建獨具特色的中國非洲學開辟道路。

        對非洲研究,可以有廣義與狹義兩種理解。廣義上的非洲研究,包括所有以非洲這塊大陸為研究對象的知識、思想、理論的研究,包括人文科學、社會科學、自然科學、工程技術等各學科領域的非洲問題研究。狹義上的非洲研究,主要是指以非洲大陸的文明進程及當代政治經濟發展問題為核心內容的研究,主要包括從人文科學、社會科學層面開展的非洲研究。今天中國學者進行非洲研究,以狹義方面居多,大體集中于兩大領域:一是側重非洲大陸歷史進程的非洲文明研究,二是側重非洲大陸現實問題的非洲發展研究。非洲文明研究重在歷史,非洲發展研究重在當代。前者為背景研究、基礎研究,后者為實踐研究、運用研究,兩部分互為條件、相互支撐。

        非洲研究能夠成為一個專門、獨立的領域是有其內在原因的。非洲這塊大陸無論作為一個自然區域還是作為一個文明區域,無論在歷史上還是在當代,位于其中的各個國家具有一些共同屬性,在自然、地理、歷史、社會與文化諸多方面都有緊密聯系。這讓我們可以也應當對這塊大陸作出整體性、關聯性、宏觀性的認識與把握,形成專門化的有關非洲的知識與學術。當然,對于非洲的研究,只從整體上理解和把握遠遠不夠,還應對非洲大陸各國、各地區、各專題中的多種多樣問題進行具體細致的研究把握,分門別類地開展非洲國家國別研究、各大次區域研究以及重大專題研究,從而達到既見森林也見樹木的效果。因而,非洲研究是一門將國別學、區域學、專題學融于一體的學問。

        近年來,在非洲研究領域,中國學者圍繞中國發展、非洲發展、中非全方位合作發展進行細致觀察與深入思考。無論在實踐應用與政策層面,還是在基礎框架與話語建構層面,我國的非洲研究都在形成獨特話語形態與理論體系,開始擁有自己的學術視野,問題意識與自主意識日益增強。總結我國非洲研究的發展經驗,最重要的一點就是從中非雙方正在做的事情出發,立足中非雙方具體情況,在深入非洲、觀察非洲的過程中著力解答中非雙方面臨的重大議題,為構建更加緊密的中非命運共同體服務。

        我國的非洲研究應著眼于自身日益增強的與非洲國家交往合作的實際需要,致力于解答中國與非洲國家交往過程中的現實問題。中國不可能通過移植、照抄西方理論與話語來回答和解決自己與非洲交往的理論與現實問題,而必須走出一條自己的知識建構與學術探索道路。雖然這條道路并不平坦,但它立足于中國實際,服務于中非交往合作的具體實踐及現實需要,體現出自主性原則。只有走這條道路,我國的非洲研究才能朝著正確方向深耕下去,開辟出大有可為的新天地。

        當今世界正處于百年未有之大變局。在變局中,中國人如何看非洲?非洲人如何看中國?回答好這些問題,只能依靠中國與非洲自己來努力。我們應以中非交往合作的實際情況與需要為研究起點,依據自身社會和歷史特性,積累新材料、發現新問題、提出新觀點、構建新理論,依靠自主創新推進非洲研究,讓非洲研究在中國大地結出碩果。

       

        (作者為浙江師范大學非洲研究院院長、教育部長江學者特聘教授)

      作者簡介

      姓名:劉鴻武 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:張文齊)
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