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       首頁 >> 教育學 >> 教育學原理
      再論制度何以育德
      2019年06月10日 10:44 來源:《教育研究與實驗》2018年第5期 作者:張添翼 杜時忠 字號
      關鍵詞:制度育德;制度情境;道德化;民主化

      內容摘要:制度情境以“道德化-民主化”為機制影響學生品德,道德化限定了制度情境影響的道德性質,民主化制約著道德心理能否外化為道德行為,二者交疊,深化了對制度何以育德的過程與機制認識。

      關鍵詞:制度育德;制度情境;道德化;民主化

      作者簡介:

        作者簡介:張添翼,華中師范大學教育學院;杜時忠,華中師范大學道德教育研究所。武漢 430079

        內容提要:制度資源觀、制度過程觀、制度生活觀本質上是“制度本位”的制度育德觀,缺乏學生視角和品德視角,因而“制度-品德”的育德過程與“民主-內化”的育德機制都有待商榷。針對前者,文章提出制度情境是中介;針對后者,文章強調道德化是關鍵。這樣,制度情境以“道德化-民主化”為機制影響學生品德,道德化限定了制度情境影響的道德性質,民主化制約著道德心理能否外化為道德行為,二者交疊,深化了對制度何以育德的過程與機制認識。

        關 鍵 詞:制度育德 制度情境 道德化 民主化

        標題注釋:本文系中國博士后科學基金面上資助項目“學校制度情境及其育德機制研究”(2017M612485),2018年度教育部人文社會科學研究規劃基金項目“制度德育論的建構研究”(18YJA880016)的研究成果。

        在《制度何以育德》中,我們提出了制度育德的“三部曲”,即制度資源觀(制度是一種德育資源)、制度過程觀(制度是一種德育過程)、制度生活觀(制度是一種生活方式)。[1]制度資源觀強調制度是一種德育資源,而不只是管理手段。一方面,制度具有規則、規范,能夠對兒童青少年的行為或認知產生影響;另一方面,制度具有價值、德性,能夠引導或“位移于”兒童青少年的價值觀、德性。制度過程觀強調讓學生參與學校制度的制定、執行、修訂過程,通過“參與-認同”的機制,把文本的、靜態的制度升華為行動的、動態的德育過程。制度生活觀強調把制度化為生活方式,通過“民主-內化”的機制,形成穩定的制度生活文化,以此涵育個人道德。

        提出制度育德“三部曲”,理論價值在于把不說話的制度納入教育研究,從而拓展了教育學的理論視野;實踐價值在于鼓勵學校和老師提升制度意識,并指導學校和老師開展制度育德的嘗試。不過,“三部曲”尚不足以全面揭示學校制度影響學生品德的過程與機制。

        一、制度育德“三部曲”的局限

        (一)過程局限

        探討學校制度如何影響學生品德,必須直面真實的學生(學校)生活,綜合考慮制度、環境、學生三方面要素。從學生立場看環境,影響學生品德的環境因素有很多,比如教師、同伴、家庭、學校氛圍,甚至物理環境[2]等等,并非只有制度;而且,制度及其他環境因素如何影響學生品德,還依賴于學生對它們的主觀認知與意義理解,此其一。其二,制度并非只影響學生,也對教師、家庭、學校氛圍等等其他環境要素產生影響。其三,制度及其他環境因素并非只對學生品德產生影響,還可能對學生的其他方面如身體、智力等產生影響。

        基于上述分析,制度育德“三部曲”存在如下局限:第一,“制度本位”的制度育德,對“德”的承載者即學生究竟是如何認識、理解學校制度及其屬性、價值的關注不夠,因而難以切實把握制度對學生是否有影響,有何種影響,以及影響有多大。第二,理論抽象的制度育德,忽視了“學生”是生活于共同體之中的具體個體,從而“懸置”了同伴生活、師生關系等人際互動以及其他環境因素對學生影響的討論,因而難以全面把握制度是否通過中介性要素影響個體學生。第三,整體綜合的制度育德,“規避”了品德發展機制的細節,從而難以回答制度影響的究竟是學生品德還是其他方面,究竟是制度的何種屬性或中介要素影響學生品德。

        (二)機制局限

        制度育德“三部曲”對育德機制的認識,可歸納為“民主-內化”機制。民主體現在制度過程觀中的“學生參與”“學生同意”,制度生活觀中的民主化生活方式;內化體現于學生對制度的“吸收”之中。與這種線性過程觀相對應,“民主-內化”機制本質上反映的是一種“制度本位”或“環境本位”的解釋思路。這一思路同樣存在局限。

        首先,環境意義的民主并不必然對學生發展產生積極影響。從環境角度來看,民主有“名義的民主”“建設的民主”與“本質的民主”之別。“名義的民主”只是把民主當作一個口號、一種宣傳,其實質仍然可能是專權的或放任的。“建設的民主”是局部性的民主,雖然領導者、教師積極創造條件、營造氛圍,鼓勵學生參與、人際交流、尊重學生意愿,但并不必然消解環境中的不平等、不自由因素。或者說,環境是民主、專制、權威、放任等情境的復合體,民主只是其中一維,而不必然是環境的本質屬性。與之相比,只有“本質的民主”才可能切實影響學生個體的品質。因為“本質的民主”不僅是實質意義的民主、整體意義的民主,更是認知意義的民主。在這種民主環境中,學生切實認識到、感受到環境中的關系是平等的,溝通是自由的,權利是被尊重的。依此而論,制度育德“三部曲”對認知意義的民主是關注不夠的。

        更為“嚴重”的是,內化機制并不足以保證作為環境的制度,影響的一定是學生品德(也可能是學生的認知、技能甚至體質)。所謂內化,指的是人對外部事物通過認知轉化為內部思維的過程,也是個人接受群體或社會的規范并使之成為其人格一部分的過程。[3]p1647以內化概念為基礎,道德內化指的是個體在外部環境影響下,將社會的道德要求、道德規則轉化為自身動機系統的一部分,從而在無外界壓力的情境中作出道德行為。[4]據此來說,道德內化至少包含著兩層含義:首先,內化之物應該是“道德”,而非其他。其次,外在的道德由外而內的轉化。然而,從品德心理研究的角度來看,早期多種研究取向的道德內化觀,其內化之物要么不全是道德,要么是局部的道德或者道德的某個元素。前者如精神分析取向、行為主義取向,其關注的內化之物是行為規則,而這些來自父母或榜樣的行為規則哪些是道德的,哪些是非道德的,則缺乏明確的劃分依據;后者如認知發展取向,其關注的內化之物主要是公正原則,而忽視了關懷、寬恕、權利等其他道德主題。總之,由于缺乏對環境因素進行更深入的分析,早期的道德內化觀既不能確保主體內化的一定是道德,也不能保證內化的就是道德的全部。

        既然制度育德“三部曲”還存在如上所述的過程局限與機制局限,那么,應該如何超越呢?

      作者簡介

      姓名:張添翼 杜時忠 工作單位:華中師范大學

      課題:

      本文系中國博士后科學基金面上資助項目“學校制度情境及其育德機制研究”(2017M612485),2018年度教育部人文社會科學研究規劃基金項目“制度德育論的建構研究”(18YJA880016)的研究成果。

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:畢雁)
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