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       首頁 >> 教育學 >> 普通教育學
      張殷 等:科學教師批判性思維傾向與課堂行為的研究
      2019年06月10日 11:08 來源:《全球教育展望》2018年第8期 作者:張殷 羅星凱 張紅霞 字號
      關鍵詞:科學教師;批判性思維傾向;高層次思維;教學行為

      內容摘要:基于對我國6個地區4002名中學科學(理科)教師的調查,對其批判性思維傾向和教學行為進行統計分析。

      關鍵詞:科學教師;批判性思維傾向;高層次思維;教學行為

      作者簡介:

        原題:科學教師批判性思維傾向與課堂行為的研究

        作者簡介:張殷,南京大學教育研究院博士研究生,廣西師范大學副教授(南京 210093);羅星凱,廣西師范大學科學教育研究所暨物理科學與技術學院教授(桂林 541004);張紅霞,南京大學教育研究院教授(南京 210093)

        內容提要:本研究基于對我國6個地區4002名中學科學(理科)教師的調查,對其批判性思維傾向和教學行為進行統計分析。數據表明,科學教師批判性思維總體傾向積極,開放與求真傾向得分最低;批判性思維總體傾向在不同職稱教師中沒有顯著差異(P>0.05),并沒有隨著職稱升高而遞增;科學課堂中培養批判性思維的教學行為發生頻率低;教師的批判性思維傾向對探究教學行為的回歸模型顯著,模型擬合度為0.25(Δ為0.23),其中好奇傾向對探究教學行為的預測作用最大;批判性思維傾向對訓練型教學行為的回歸模型顯著,但擬合度差,其中求真傾向對訓練型教學行為預測作用最大且為負向。

        關 鍵 詞:科學教師 批判性思維傾向 高層次思維 教學行為

        標題注釋:本文系羅星凱教授主持的北京師范大學中國基礎教育質量監測協同創新中心“區域教育質量健康體檢與改進提升”之“科學素養測評與診斷改進”項目(項目編號:17QYHX-B001)的研究成果之一。

        一、研究思路和研究方法

        本研究主要的研究問題是:科學教師的批判性思維的整體傾向是什么,從整體和各個子維度來看,不同性別、年齡、教齡、職稱或教育背景的教師是否有明顯差異?科學教師的批判性思維傾向與其教學行為是否有聯系?

        為了回答研究問題,首先通過文獻研究修訂“批判性思維傾向”和編寫“教學行為”問卷,并對300名不參加最終調查的科學教師進行試測,檢查問卷的信度和效度,對6名教師進行訪談,以保證問卷無歧義;接下來實施問卷調查和數據分析;然后對中學科學教師自身批判性思維傾向,科學課堂教學行為現狀進行描述;進而將科學課堂教學行為分解為有助于批判性思維培養的課堂行為和強調記憶練習的訓練型教學行為兩組;再用人口學指標和批判性思維傾向對教學行為進行回歸分析,對回歸結果做解釋。

        (一)樣本

        本研究以八年級科學教師為研究對象,對我國六個地區的科學教師進行調查,得到有效教師問卷4002份。其中,男教師46.1%,女教師53.9%;年齡在25歲以下、25歲~29歲、30歲~39歲、40歲~49歲、50歲以上的教師比例為3.9%、15.7%、38.9%、33.3%、8.2%;教齡低于5年、5歲~10年、11歲~15年、16歲~20年、20年以上教師的比例分別為14.1%、19.3%、19.4%、17.7%、29.5%;職稱為未定職、中學教師二級、中學教師一級、高級教師及以上的比例分別為8.4%、27.3%、41.1%、23.2%;學歷為大學專科以下、大學專科、大學本科、研究生及以上的比例分別為7.5%、43.3%、44.7%、4.5%;科學相關學科背景的教師和其他學科背景的教師比例分別為89.0%和11.0%。

        (二)測量工具

        調查問卷主要包括人口學特征、批判性思維傾向和課堂教學行為三個部分。批判性思維傾向問卷改編自加利福尼亞批判性思維傾向量表(California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory,簡稱CCTDI)。考慮文化差異可能引起的偏差,本研究對量表進行了本土化的修訂和初測。最后進入大規模測量的量表包含求真(Truth-seeking)、思想開放(Open-mindedness)、分析性(Analyticity)、系統性(Systematicity)、自信(Confidence in Reasoning)、好奇心(Inquisitiveness)6個維度,共12個問題,Cronbach's Alpha為0.73。第三部分是教師自陳的課堂教學行為。發展科學推理這樣的高階思維更多地取決于怎樣教,而不是教什么。[1]本研究篩選出10種常見的教學行為,包括有助于高階思維培養的探究、爭論和反思等教學行為和強調記憶和反復做題等訓練型的教學行為,形成問卷,Cronbach's Alpha為0.80。問卷采用李克特式五點評量,依次是“1.從不”“2.很少”“3.有時”“4.常常”“5.總是”。

        (三)統計方法

        本研究采用SPSS20.0軟件進行數據處理與分析,主要采用描述統計,方差分析和回歸分析的方法。

        二、調查結果

        (一)科學教師在批判性思維的開放和求真傾向上得分最低

        所謂批判性思維指的是人們在認識和參與社會實踐中,通過有序的評價證據和爭論的方法,對應該相信什么和應該做什么進行決策的方式。[2]批判性思維既包括技能也包括傾向,核心的批判性思維技能包括解釋、分析、評估、推論、說明和自我校準;批判性思維傾向則包括求真、思想開放、分析性、系統性、自信、好奇性和成熟性。[3]Facione,N.& Facione,P.A.對各個子維度的定義[4]如下:尋求真理的人勇于提問,尊重證據,即便是結果不支持個人的利益或觀點也努力不讓偏見影響他們對知識和真理的追求;開放者尊重其他人有不同觀點的權利,以理解其他人的觀點、對有分歧觀點開放為特征;分析指的是對潛在的有問題的情境保持警覺,努力預測可能的結果,即使手邊的問題非常困難也堅持運用理由和證據的傾向;系統指努力以一種有紀律、有秩序、有系統的方式解決問題的傾向;自信性指個人對推理過程的信任水平,自信強的人相信自己的推理能力,相信自己能作出有依據的判斷,并相信其他人會信任自己的推斷;好奇心強的人樂于知道萬物是如何進行的,即使新知識不是立刻有用,也樂于去探尋為什么;成熟指向一個人進行反思的傾向,包含公正、愿意懸置判斷等等。由于初測中,成熟維度未能通過統計檢驗,沒有進入最終的調查。本次調查科學教師在批判性思維傾向各維度上的表現如表1。

        用科學教師得分轉化為百分數與CCTDI手冊[5]做對比,發現科學教師批判性思維總體傾向積極,在自信、分析、好奇、系統維度上處于強積極,在求真維度上處于正面傾向,開放維度得分僅處于負面傾向的分界線上,接近消極。

      作者簡介

      姓名:張殷 羅星凱 張紅霞 工作單位:南京大學教育研究院;廣西師范大學科學教育研究所暨物理科學與技術學院;南京大學教育研究院

      課題:

      本文系羅星凱教授主持的北京師范大學中國基礎教育質量監測協同創新中心“區域教育質量健康體檢與改進提升”之“科學素養測評與診斷改進”項目(項目編號:17QYHX-B001)的研究成果之一。

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:畢雁)
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