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       首頁 >> 教育學 >> 普通教育學
      潘士美等:義務教育學生科學素養及其關鍵影響因素研究 ——來自PISA、TIMSS和NAEP的國際測評經驗
      2019年06月10日 11:31 來源:《外國教育研究》2018年第10期 作者:潘士美 張裕靈 李玲 字號
      關鍵詞:科學素養;關鍵影響因素;國際測評經驗

      內容摘要:國際測評項目PISA、TIMSS和NAEP基于不同理論或現實考量,圍繞具體的科學素養概念,構建了以“知識和能力”為核心的科學內容測評框架,并選取“層次化”的關鍵影響因素對學生科學素養進行解釋,實現了數據庫建設與科學教育研究之間的良性互動。

      關鍵詞:科學素養;關鍵影響因素;國際測評經驗

      作者簡介:

        原題:義務教育學生科學素養及其關鍵影響因素研究

        作者簡介:潘士美、張裕靈,西南大學教育學部教育政策研究所,西南民族教育與心理研究中心,碩士生;李玲,西南大學教育學部教育政策研究所,西南民族教育與心理研究中心,教授,博士生導師(重慶400715)。

        內容提要:國際測評項目PISA、TIMSS和NAEP基于不同理論或現實考量,圍繞具體的科學素養概念,構建了以“知識和能力”為核心的科學內容測評框架,并選取“層次化”的關鍵影響因素對學生科學素養進行解釋,實現了數據庫建設與科學教育研究之間的良性互動。我國科學素養測評應借鑒國際三大項目的經驗:積極探索新時代中國特色測評的理論基礎;明確學生“科學能力”模型的結構和要素;重視科學探究與實踐,強調重知識向重能力的轉變;把握好關鍵影響因素的“分層”和“嵌套”特征;推動科學素養及其關鍵影響因素數據庫的建設和使用,為科技后備人才培養精準發力。

        關 鍵 詞:科學素養 關鍵影響因素 國際測評經驗

        標題注釋:中央高校基金創新團隊項目“基礎教育質量監測”(項目編號:SWU1709104);國家社會科學基金重大項目“義務教育質量關鍵影響因素監測框架構建與驗證研究”(項目編號:16ZDA229);西南大學教育學部重大培育項目“西部民族地區義務教育質量監測追蹤數據庫建設與分析”(項目編號:2017ZDPY02)。

        [中圖分類號]G423.04 [文獻標識碼]A [文章編號]1006-7469(2018)10-0076-12

        一、三大項目對科學素養的界定

        “科學素養”概念反映了對一般科學教育目標廣泛性和功能性的理解,[1]但目前學術界、各組織與機構部門對科學素養的界定存在一定差異,主要受到五大因素的影響,分別是:負責定義的群體組織不同、目的不同、對科學本質的理解不同、內涵的界定不同和測量方法的不同,[2]這些因素也直接或間接地體現在三大測評項目對科學素養的概念界定上。

        PISA 2015將科學素養(Scientific Literacy)定義為“作為一名具有反思力的公民能夠運用科學思維參與相關科學議題的能力”,認為擁有良好科學素養的個人應具備以下三種能力:科學地解釋現象、設計和評價科學探究、科學地闡釋數據和證據[3],因為這些能力是現代科技社會對學生科學素養發展的必然要求。顯然,PISA的定義既體現了科學素養的本質,也體現了對個體能力層面的內涵要求。

        TIMSS 2015中雖然沒有指出科學素養的一般概念,但強調“學生在面對有關疾病治療、氣候變化和技術應用等各種問題時,應該能夠在堅實的科學基礎上采取行動”,以滿足科技社會對人們能力和更高階段學習的要求,并從三個方面對其進行評價:科學內容(Science Content)、科學認知(Science Cognitive)和科學實踐(Science Practices)。[4]實際上TIMSS是從測量的需要出發對科學素養進行了界定,對個體提出了能力和知識層面的要求。

        NAEP中科學素養的界定則根據美國《科學素養基準》,[5]從科學世界觀(The Scientific Worldview)、科學探究(Scientific Inquiry)和科學事業(The Scientific Enterprise)三個方面闡釋科學素養的本質,并依據三方面內容對學校的課程目標給予逐年級確定。

        總體來看,三大項目對科學素養的界定受到一種因素或者多種因素的交疊影響,但“內涵明確”是三大項目的典型特點(三大項目的操作性內涵可參見表1)。

        從內涵的差異性來看,在能力層面,PISA側重從科學探究過程視角界定科學素養的內涵;TIMSS的“科學認知”將PISA的科學素養提到學生“科學思維”層面,而作為“科學思維”外化表現的“科學實踐”則與PISA的科學素養內涵以及NAEP的“科學探究”基本相符合;NAEP進一步將PISA和TIMSS的科學素養范疇拓展到意識形態和科學社會環境中,要求學生形成一定的科學世界觀,并理解科學與社會的關系。在知識層面,TIMSS對科學知識做了顯性強調,但在另兩大項目中則為隱性支撐。這些在能力層面和知識層面的差異與三大項目所屬的組織性質以及不同組織的目的指向關系密切。

        從內涵的共同性來看,三大項目對學生科學素養的概念界定都屬于“內容—行為”取向,即以人為本,從具備科學素養意味著個體能做什么的角度進行探討,[6]集中反映了社會環境變化和科學學科對學生知識與能力發展的要求,旨在使學生能“像科學家一樣思考”和行動。

        雖然三者對科學素養內涵的側重點不同,但可以看出,它們對學生科學素養的要求卻潛在組成了一條“科學能力鏈”,即以科學知識為依托,以學生個體心理(科學思維、科學世界觀)和行為(科學實踐)為兩軸,進而由學生個體延伸輻射到社會(科學與社會)的能力鏈條。

      作者簡介

      姓名:潘士美 張裕靈 李玲 工作單位:西南大學教育學部

      課題:

      中央高校基金創新團隊項目“基礎教育質量監測”(項目編號:SWU1709104);國家社會科學基金重大項目“義務教育質量關鍵影響因素監測框架構建與驗證研究”(項目編號:16ZDA229);西南大學教育學部重大培育項目“西部民族地區義務教育質量監測追蹤數據庫建設與分析”(項目編號:2017ZDPY02)。

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:畢雁)
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