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       首頁 >> 考古學 >> 文化遺產與博物館
      情境視角下的鄉村遺產價值闡釋
      2019年06月05日 09:16 來源:《中國文物報》2019年5月31日6版 作者:全軼先 杜曉帆 字號

      內容摘要:

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      作者簡介:

        隨著對鄉村遺產價值認知的不斷豐富和發展,與遺產相關的人以及人的行動、人與遺產的關系得到越來越多的關注。若以人為中心和出發點進行觀察,我們不妨將其作為一個整體的“情境”加以思考。“情境”可理解為在一定時間內各種要素相結合的境況,既可作為人類活動的背景,又可作為施加導向的途徑。在考古學領域,伊恩·霍德于20世紀80年代提出“情境考古學”理論。一方面,客體同時存在于多個相關的尺度中,這些圍繞客體變化的相關尺度的總和可以定義為客體的情境,一個關聯和對比豐富的信息網絡可以用于建立意義的闡釋;另一方面,情境隨著特定的器物以及被考量的尺度而發生變化,也隨著操作的意圖而發生變化,考古學的闡釋不僅在研究對象的社會情境下進行,也不可避免地在研究者自身的社會情境下進行。

        鄉村歷史建筑前的村民

        我們可將“遺產情境”視為在一定時空場點下,涵蓋了與遺產相關的自然與人文、物質與非物質等要素及要素間關系的集合圈,這構成了人在其間的行為與情感活動發生的背景網絡。這類似于徐堅先生提出的影響闡釋的三個情境中的前兩者:物質性情境和空間性情境,而其間的“人”的角色不同則對應著不同的闡釋情境。鄉村遺產因其多元性與特殊性,可視為一個立體而動態的“遺產情境”,若以發展的眼光看待,鄉村遺產情境中的人作為主體對象,對當下情境內的一切其他要素均具有一定的能動作用,這將鄉村遺產推至一個絕對的運動狀態,使我們得以重新審視其價值的建構與發展的規律。

        太行山深處的村落景觀

        2018年夏,復旦大學國土與文化資源研究中心的鄉村遺產調查團隊行至山西平遙縣的木瓜村,我們見到了一位名為孔繁玉的七旬老人和他堅持書寫六年,僅靠回憶記錄下的長達十余萬字的村落歷史——《木瓜村的故事》。書中在介紹村落組成時有這樣一段話:“木瓜村有五堡、兩灣、一條街;五廟、一社、一祠堂。如觀音寺人們一直叫大廟,現在看來是新式的二層洋樓,可年齡稍大點的人都叫它大廟。永遠消失不了,根深蒂固。且每當死了人便去大門旁燒見閻王紙,如此年年流傳怎會忘掉呢?”可見在村落中,古老的建筑未必比約定俗成的習慣存在得更為長久,在建筑主體已經損壞、消失后,它所承載的價值仍然在變相延續,延續的方式以及延續的時間是由它的使用者,也就是村民來決定的。那我們該如何看待村民在鄉村遺產保護中的作用?在遺產情境中體現為以人為寄托的無形價值是如何產生及發展的?

        復旦大學國土與文化資源研究中心鄉村遺產調查

        正如一位經驗豐富的手工匠人,不僅諳熟工藝的每一步驟與操作,更能在制作過程中隨機應變,將自己的智慧與經驗融入其中。鄉間的老農望草木而知晴雨,學新法以修舊屋,在建筑損毀后仍能將其承載的習俗進行人為延續,人的精神與行為正是貫穿于村落之中各要素之間的主線。鄉村遺產的資源與價值均含有物質和非物質的部分,除沿襲自祖輩的傳統建筑、歷史遺存、民俗技藝等,人在遺產情境內產生的情感體驗、價值體驗以及由這些體驗而做出的反饋,構成了鄉村遺產重要的非物質價值,這部分價值可以衍生為人類的生存智慧、生活哲學、人地關系、文化多樣性。

        在情境的視角下,遺產的價值呈現出一種動態的發展過程。鄉村遺產存在時間上的延續性,且生活于其中的村民具有一定的能動作用,自村落誕生后,代代相傳的過程,正是每一代村民在各自的時空場點和遺產情境下,對傳承自上一代的遺產價值進行闡釋與再創造的過程。隨著村落人口的代謝,村民意識形態的轉變,遺產創造者的死亡與更替,導致了遺產價值的部分流失,而新的遺產承載者在自身情境內的體驗和反饋又對遺產的價值進行了增補。對于歷史建筑來說,每一次的修繕維護都是在前一時期的基礎上進行的,而不是在初始的建筑物上進行的;對于非物質遺產來說,每一次師徒傳授的過程,都損失了部分師父的經驗智慧,而增補了徒弟的體驗和反饋,代代相傳皆是如此,這些都可作為遺產情境及遺產價值動態發展的表現。

        村民觀看廟會的戲劇表演

        隨著時間的延續,處于遺產情境中的人、對人產生影響的社會觀念和文化背景在發生變化,人對遺產的認知方式、反饋方式也在變化,自身的發展與外界的干預使得鄉村遺產無法保持靜止恒定的價值,而時刻立足于前一時期,處于永不停歇的動態更新之中。

        鄉村遺產的情境不是閉塞的,其價值的傳遞也不僅限于村落內部。對于一個開放的遺產情境來說,“人”既可以指遺產的創造者,也可以指遺產的觀察者和體驗者,這對應于不同的闡釋情境。村民在遺產情境內得到體驗并有能力反作用于它,體現為建筑的修繕、民俗的流變、傳統工藝的改進等。而遺產的研究人員和游客群體,則屬于后一種,他們出于各自不同的經歷和情感狀態形成對遺產的理解,并且上升到文化自信、文化認同、情感共鳴、美的欣賞等層面,這也成為了遺產價值的一部分,但對遺產本身沒有那么大的反作用力。研究人員作為觀察者中的特例,可以將結合個人體驗和理解的遺產價值傳達給非專業的受眾,形成了一部分價值傳遞過程中的創造能力。

        參與歷史建筑修繕的村民

        以情境的視角看待鄉村遺產,意味著通過對情境要素進行干預可影響遺產價值的輸出,以此實現遺產保護和展示利用的既定目標。“遺產情境”和“教學情境”一樣,都可視為一種微觀的社會情境,可通過氛圍的創設達到教育和引導的作用,為公眾提供新穎、深刻的價值體驗。但出于功利性的負面干預同樣會導致負面的結果,城鄉互動,商業催發,皆是鄉村遺產早已面臨的干預力。每一個看似獨立的遺產情境,都作為開放的循環系統,不可避免地纏動在時代的齒輪中,在主動與被動的作用力下,探索著來路與去處。

        皇城相府景區

      作者簡介

      姓名:全軼先 杜曉帆 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:齊澤垚)
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