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       首頁 >> 歷史學 >> 考古學
      考古人員首次明確發現商代鑄銅工匠家族墓地
      2019年06月07日 16:08 來源:新華網 作者:桂娟 雙瑞 字號

      內容摘要:以司母戊鼎為代表的商代青銅器,因造型優美、紋飾華麗而飽受贊譽。在河南安陽的洹北商城,隨著一處鑄銅工匠家族墓地的發現,諸多謎團有望一一揭曉。

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        新華社鄭州6月7日電(記者桂娟、雙瑞)以司母戊鼎為代表的商代青銅器,因造型優美、紋飾華麗而飽受贊譽。然而,對這些精美藝術品的創造者和制作流程,人們卻所知甚少。在河南安陽的洹北商城,隨著一處鑄銅工匠家族墓地的發現,諸多謎團有望一一揭曉。

        “幾年來我們先后發現了42座工匠墓,對其考古發掘后判定,它們屬于一個從事鑄銅生產活動的家族,這是我國首次明確發現商代青銅工匠家族墓地。”中國社會科學院考古研究所研究員、安陽工作站副站長何毓靈說。

        1999年在殷墟保護區東北部發現的洹北商城,是商代中期的都城遺址,發現后引起國內外考古學家的廣泛關注。2014年起,中國社會科學院考古研究所安陽工作站持續在洹北商城內進行發掘,探究其都邑布局。

        2015年8月,在宮城北墻以北約570米,首次發現了用于熔銅的鼓風嘴,一處為王室所掌控、為統治階級生產青銅禮器的商代中期鑄銅作坊隨之揭開神秘面紗。鑄銅工匠家族墓地,就位于這處鑄銅作坊內。

        “墓葬東西向排列整齊,有一定規劃性,顯示出家族墓地的特征。”何毓靈介紹,目前共發掘42座墓葬,多發現有鑄造銅器使用過的陶范、銅刀、磨石等工具,特別是專門用陶范作為隨葬品之前尚未發現,基本可以判定墓主人身份為鑄銅工匠。

        其中形制最大的一座墓葬,有棺有槨,槨室二層臺上有殉狗和一堆陶范,有一個陶范可以清晰辨別出是鑄造銅觚的外范。考古人員推測墓主人可能為工匠家族的族長,預計會隨葬有其他器物,考慮到現場條件,準備把墓葬整體搬運回室內進行實驗室考古清理。

        “工匠墓的發掘,為研究商代青銅器生產組織、管理、運營,工匠階層的等級、地位,生產技術的傳承與創新等諸多問題奠定了堅實基礎。”何毓靈說,把近幾年的發掘連貫起來,能夠還原一幅鮮活的商代青銅器生產圖景。

        截至目前,考古人員已在洹北商城發掘3600余平方米,發現房基、灰坑、水井、墓葬等遺跡800余處,出土了大量遺物,特別是鑄銅相關的生產廢棄物。值得一提的是一個很小的銅鼎模型,上面畫出了分范線,標識了在哪里刻畫花紋,據推測是工匠在制作新的青銅器前用來搞研究的。

        依據手工業生產的操作鏈理論,考古人員逐步辨識出鑄銅作坊內的陶模、陶范制作區,青銅熔煉與澆鑄區,生產廢棄物堆積區,以及可能與生產相關的人祭坑、牛頭與牛角祭禮坑等。

      作者簡介

      姓名:桂娟 雙瑞 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:田粉紅)
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