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       首頁 >> 美術館
      中國書法的支撐是什么
      2019年06月10日 15:51 來源:美術報 作者:傅徳鋒 字號

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        中國書法的支撐到底是什么?這個問題似乎已經被書法界議論了很久,但最終還是仁者見仁、智者見智,莫衷一是。

        熊秉明先生曾說過:“書法是中國文化的核心的核心”,這句話盡管有一定的道理,但也頗具爭議。因為中國文化的核心通常是指傳統哲學,書法雖然與哲學相通,內在關系十分密切,但終歸書法不完全等于哲學,兩者之間還是有所區別的。

        那么中國書法的支撐到底是什么?我覺得應該從四個方面來加以闡釋:

        從起源來講,中國書法的支撐首先是漢字。中國書法是伴隨著漢字的演變發展和書寫實踐而發展的,盡管說漢字書寫不一定都稱得上是書法,但書法肯定是建立在漢字書寫的基礎之上。甚至可以說,在科舉制度被廢除之前,除了活字印刷字體之外的所有手工書寫都帶有書法的意味。作為文人士大夫階層的日常書寫,由于其知識的儲備量大,再加上科舉應試的需要和以書取仕制度的制約,他們的書寫水平普遍較高,其中的一部分,就沉淀為中國書法的經典。而民間書手的那些字跡,盡管其技術含量不是很高,或者說不能和經典書法相提并論,但也同樣具備一定的藝術性,帶有一定的書法原創意味。這也是我們現在除學習經典碑帖之外,也不排斥向古代的民間書法汲取營養的原因。

        因此,漢字應該是中國書法的最基本支撐。任何脫離漢字的其他文字書寫,即便其“藝術性”再高,也不能稱之為是中國書法。

        其次是中國古典文學。中國書法不是單一的存在,它始終與中國古典文學有著難以分割的歷史淵源。書法(即便是最原始的漢字書寫)一開始完全是出于實用的需要,承擔著“記文載事”的主要功能。古人無論寫詩作文都要以“書法”來完成。在滿足實用的基礎上越來越注重藝術性,越來越講求技術含量。古人絕不可能完全脫離實用——即“記文載事”,而去書寫那些缺乏詩文含義的、純漢字拼湊的所謂書法作品。因此,千百年以來,中國書法的文字內容都具備可閱讀性和具有一定實際含義的詩詞或是文章,或者奏章、或者書信、或者公文、或者藥方。

        而當我們考察歷史上那些書法經典,大多都是文辭精美、含義豐富的詩詞文章。當我們“讀帖”的時候,除了欣賞其點畫線條和結構章法布局之外,對文字內容的閱讀也是一個不可回避的問題。甚至我們欣賞任何一件書法作品,都會或多或少受文字內容的影響。從王羲之的《蘭亭序》、顏真卿的《祭侄文稿》到蘇東坡《黃州寒食詩》,我們不可能說這三件作品所體現的意境與文字內容本身沒有絲毫關系。

        事實上,古代的書家基本上都能自作詩文,文字功夫基本上也能夠說得過去的,無非是實際水平有所差別罷了。

        通過這樣的分析,我認為中國古典文學也同樣是中國書法的重要支撐。

        然后是史學。《舊唐書·魏征傳》:“夫以銅為鏡,可以正衣冠;以史為鏡,可以知興替;以人為鏡,可以明得失。”書法家必須要通曉歷史,不僅要通曉書法史,還要通曉文學史,也要通曉哲學史,更要通曉整個中國歷史。惟其如此,你才可能是一個明白人。所謂“讀史明心”講的就是這個道理。很難想象,一個不懂歷史的人,怎么可能做好任何一件大事。不惟書法,在任何領域,要想做成大事,都必須熟讀歷史,把握全局。因此,史學也理所應當是書法的有效支撐。

        最后是中國哲學。儒釋道思想共同構成了中國傳統哲學體系。中國書法是黑白藝術,與道家的陰陽之學妙相契合。書法的黑白相間和虛實變化與道家之法如出一轍。就儒家思想而言,修身齊家治國平天下是其核心所在,但書法本身就是古來文人士大夫的一項重要修身之道。科舉制度和以書取仕都需要文人士大夫必須通曉書法,至少要有說得過去的基本修養。至于佛家,亦是同理。

        以上都還只是一個相對簡單的分析闡釋,如果要深入系統地來進行剖析,恐怕要做很大的文章。鑒于篇幅所限,在這里就不再展開討論了。

        因此,漢字、文學、史學和哲學是書法的共同支撐,而且還不能簡單把漢字修養、文學修養和哲學修養當做書法的“書外功”,至少其中有一部分重要內容是與書法本體不可分割的,如漢字、文學和史學,哲學盡管比較抽象,但也不能完全將其排除在“書內功”之外。我們平時只是把文史哲等當做是書法的“書外功”,而僅僅把臨帖和研讀古人書論等當做是“書內功”,這未必是恰當的。我甚至認為,當代書法之所以缺乏古人書法的那種特有的格局和氣象,恐怕其主要原因正在這里。因為人為割裂了書法的內外關系,把很多技術性的東西放大到了一個不適當的程度,文字學、史學、文學、哲學,都是極為博大精深的學問,要想搞好書法,就不能不對這些學問給與足夠的重視。

        我們當下的書家,臨帖功夫本身和古人無法相比,時代發生了翻天覆地的變化,書法失去了原有的社會基礎,變成了一門需要專門去進行訓練的選修功課,再加上認識上的偏差,書內功夫上首先與古人相去甚遠,而在文字學、史學、文學和哲學方面更是不能與古人相提并論。

        因此,要想從根本上解決問題,首先必須從思想認識上進行改變,不僅要把書內功夫盡可能做足,更要在書外功夫上花大力氣。也就是說,既不能把書內功夫僅僅理解為是單純的臨帖,更需要把全面的書外功夫重視起來。既然想當書法家,就不能怕麻煩,更不能怕吃苦。因為功夫不到家,學問不到位,你就很難在創作中從技術層面上升到道的層面。

        書法是藝術,而藝術是延續性、傳承性的,只能繼承前人,推陳出新,而不可能完全推倒重來。既然從事藝術,就必須尊重和遵循藝術的發展規律和學習方法。宋人在學習晉唐人的時候就是這么做的,代代相傳,莫不如此。到了我們這一代,怎么可以只重技術而忽略“道”呢?

      作者簡介

      姓名:傅徳鋒 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:趙萌)
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