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       首頁 >> 民族學
      王珍:庫車大馕
      2019年06月10日 08:10 來源:中國民族報 作者:王珍 字號

      內容摘要:

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      作者簡介:

        馕是維吾爾族的一種重要主食。維吾爾族人中常說:“寧可三日無菜,不可一日無馕。”在新疆各地的馕中,庫車大馕以“薄、脆、香”為人所稱道,因此也有人說:“人間美食千萬道,不及庫車一個馕。”

        庫車大馕原名叫“比加克馕”,它的故鄉在新疆阿克蘇地區庫車縣伊西哈拉鎮比加克村。庫車大馕是“舌尖上的中國美食”,2010年被列為新疆維吾爾自治區非物質文化遺產;2016年11月被中國旅游協會評為“金牌小吃”。

        為推廣馕文化,2013年,庫車縣在比加克村投資打造了庫車縣大馕城。大馕城總占地面積2萬平方米,包括馕文化展覽館、民族特色餐飲、大馕生產車間、大馕展示銷售大廳等區域。一到大馕城門口,顏色金黃、狀如車輪的庫車馕就映入眼簾。走進馕文化展覽館,關于馕的文化可盡數“收入囊中”。

        馕是維吾爾族先民適應新疆獨特的自然地理條件,在長期的生產生活中創造的一道特色美食,具有一定的科學性。在新疆這樣干燥的氣候環境中,馕是能夠保存時間最長的食物。不管它變得多么堅硬,只要有一點水,就很快能變成松軟可口的食物。過去,維吾爾族農民下地干活時隨身帶著馕。中午困乏饑餓時,將馕扔到河水上游,洗完手,順流漂下來的馕已被清泉水泡得酥軟,成為勞動者的一頓美餐。

        打馕需要面粉、馕戳、馕托、調料等。在大馕城的馕生產車間,4個工人組成一條“馕生產線”:第一人把面粉和好、發酵,揉成團餳好;第二人把面團攤成圓餅;第三人用馕戳在圓餅扎上花,撒上調料;第四人將馕放在馕托上,俯身貼在熱馕坑里,七八分鐘后熱脆的馕就出爐了。

        庫車大馕之所以有名,和庫車小麥分不開。庫車縣北枕天山,南臨塔里木河,日照時間較長,小麥從播種到收割、打場、揚場,在陽光下足足生長9個月余,得天獨厚的地理位置造就了優質的庫車小麥品種。

        馕托,維吾爾語稱為“蓋孜乃”,它的大小決定了馕的尺寸。大馕城有一個巨大的大馕托,2017年央視7套春晚對大馕城“龜茲第一馕坑”打出一個直徑3米的大馕進行了現場直播。

        馕坑出現之前,維吾爾族打馕都是用木柴燒火,把面團埋在碳灰里,過上1個時辰取出來,拍掉灰食用,這種馕叫“庫買西”。有了馕坑后,打馕就干凈衛生多了。打馕師傅點上火,溫度達到200度左右時,灑上鹽水,不僅能降溫,還能凈化馕坑,之后就可以在上面打馕了。一般的庫車大馕坑直徑1.5米左右,里面可以同時打20個左右的大馕。

        過去,庫車家家戶戶都有自己的土馕坑,可以把鍋放在上面順帶做飯,飯熟了,馕坑也熱了。隨著時代的進步,現在的馕坑根據使用燃料的不同,可以分為電馕坑、液化氣馕坑、天然氣馕坑等。大馕城的打馕車間使用的是節能、環保、無毒、無害的天然氣馕坑。經地區環保檢測部檢測,天然氣馕坑不僅節能,而且二氧化硫排放量遠遠低于柴火和燃煤,大大改善了打馕工人的工作環境。

        馕的種類很多,有油馕、奶馕、窩窩馕、玉米馕、蕎麥馕、高粱馕、鷹嘴豆馕、玫瑰花醬馕等。大馕城馕的品種超過50種,其中最大的是庫車大馕,直徑50-60厘米;最小的是托卡西,直徑只有4-5厘米。

        在維吾爾族人民心中,馕遠不止一道食物那么簡單。它是一個重要的文化符號,是婚喪嫁娶和一切禮儀往來中必不可少的饋贈禮品。

        過去,男人們出遠門時,家里的女人必須備好馕,為他送行。婚禮中,新郎和新娘要當眾吃蘸了鹽的馕,寓意山盟海誓、永不分離、相互忠誠。維吾爾族嬰兒出生后兩個時辰,要吃一丁點馕當開口飯;嬰兒出生40天時,家人要做40個馕分給40個孩子,讓孩子們為新生兒祝福。維吾爾族提親、接親,男方要帶著5個大馕,這個習俗一直延續至今。

        祖祖輩輩傳承下來的打馕技藝,如今成了脫貧致富的重要手段。大馕城現有8個天然氣馕坑,打馕人數有35人,每天可產馕8000到1萬個,通過網絡銷往全國各地。

        “自從到大馕城工作,我的生活一天比一天好了。”打馕師傅熱合曼·買買提高興地說。今年38歲的熱合曼是比西巴格鄉團結村村民,由于父親生病,家里負債累累,被認定為建檔立卡貧困戶。去年7月,他被招聘到大馕城工作,經過專業培訓,如今他成了一名熟練工,一天可以打五六百個馕,每月收入5000元。現在,他的最大愿望是掙錢蓋房子、娶媳婦。

        在遙遠的古代,商人們趕著駱駝穿梭于古絲綢之路時,馕是他們的主要食物保障。今天,盡管物質已經極大地豐富,馕在維吾爾族飲食譜系中的主流地位依然不容撼動。隨著各民族之間飲食文化交流的不斷加強,馕也受到了越來越多內地人的喜愛,成了促進各民族交往交流交融的重要載體。

      作者簡介

      姓名:王珍 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:賽音)
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