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       首頁 >> 民族學
      嚴實:漢藏語系背后的民族源流
      2019年06月10日 08:26 來源:北京日報(2019年6月5日) 作者:嚴實 字號

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

         編者導讀:漢語、藏語、羌語、緬甸語等400多種東亞語言被認為擁有共同的祖先語言,合稱為漢藏語系。語言學家對漢藏語系內部各語支親緣關系、分化時間以及起源地點長期存在爭議。 

        復旦大學金力院士團隊歷時兩年多,通過語言學和遺傳學等多學科交叉的分析方法,揭示漢藏語系約6000年前最早分化于中國北方。日前,該研究論文在線發表于《自然》雜志。本版特約論文共同第一作者、復旦大學人類表型組研究院嚴實博士撰文介紹相關科學問題。

       

      現代全世界的語系分布,紫色為漢藏語系,淺綠色為印歐語系。 

       

      公元前3世紀到公元2世紀,瑤族先民主要生活在湖南北部;5-6世紀時,向北遷;13-17世紀,他們被大量南遷。瑤族人民使用瑤語,屬漢藏語系苗瑤語族瑤語支。 

       

      云南省西雙版納傣族自治州景洪市基諾山上的基諾族,于1979年6月經民族確認,成為中國的第56個民族。基諾語屬漢藏語系藏緬語族彝語支。 

        1.300年前發現語系的秘密 

        我們從哪里來?在數十萬年的歷史中,人類如何從共同的祖先逐漸演化成為不同的族群?這一直以來都是有意思的問題。語言學是研究人類族群演化的一個重要切入點。因為語言是在傳承過程中不斷變化的,當一個祖先人群分化成為不同人群并遷往不同的地方而相互隔絕以后,這些人群所說的語言就會逐漸形成方言,以至最終形成不同的語言。

        通過語言學方法,比如對詞匯或者語法特征的比較,語言學家能夠判斷出哪些語言是接近的,并由此認為,這些語言有一個共同祖先。如果人群沒有發生過語言換用的話,講這些相關語言的人群也應該有一個共同的祖先人群。擁有一個共同祖先的語言被劃為一個語系。

        人們最早發現的一個語系是印歐語系。大約300年前,歐洲人發現印度的一些語言,比如梵語,和歐洲的拉丁語、希臘語在很多詞匯的發音以及整體的語法上都有非常明顯的相似性,因此認為這些語言是從一個共同的原始語分化而來的,并把這些語言稱作“印歐語系”或者“印度-日耳曼語系”。此后通過語言的整理和比較,語言學家把歐洲絕大多數的語言,以及亞洲的印度、伊朗、亞美尼亞等地的很多語言都劃入了印歐語系。再結合歷史學、考古學、文化特征等,學者們還推測出,講原始印歐語的人數千年前生活在黑海和里海北岸的草原上或者安納托利亞(今土耳其),有車、馬、犁等,還能推測出他們各自在什么時候通過什么樣的路徑擴散到現在廣闊的分布地域的。

        通過同樣的辦法,語言學家們嘗試把世界各處的語言都聯系起來,歸入一百多個語系。人們發現漢語和藏語、緬甸語、彝語、嘉絨語、白語、土家語、西夏語、景頗語、克倫語等都共享大量的詞匯,尤其是最基本的一些詞匯,例如人稱代詞、數詞、親屬關系、身體部位詞等。比如古漢語中“五”“吾”“魚”的發音,和藏語、緬語這三個詞的發音都非常相似,而三個詞的語義并沒有聯系,而且都是語言里面非常基本的詞匯,很難從其它語言借用,因此這幾個詞只能是有共同來源的。類似的例子還有很多。因此漢語、藏語、緬語必然是從一個共同的祖先語言那里繼承下來的。

        我們應該注意,語言的出現遠遠早于文字的出現,語系誕生和最早分化的時候都沒有文字,使用什么文字主要是晚期受什么文化影響的結果,而與語言的來源和譜系沒有必然關系。比如維吾爾語歷史上曾經用突厥字母、回鶻字母、阿拉伯字母、拉丁字母等來書寫。日語、朝鮮語、越南語歷史上受到漢文化非常深刻的影響,文字使用了漢字,語言里也引入了大量的漢語借詞,然而這些語言最基礎的核心詞匯卻和漢語的來源不同,因此這些語言不屬于漢藏語系。日語和朝鮮語屬于隔離的語言(也有學者將其劃入阿爾泰語系),而越南語屬于南亞語系。

      作者簡介

      姓名:嚴實 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:賽音)
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