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       首頁 >> 社會學
      社會治理視閾下“以禮治家”的歷史實踐 ——以浙江省浦江縣鄭氏家族祭禮為例
      2019年06月06日 09:51 來源:《社會治理》 作者:邵鳳麗 字號
      關鍵詞:祭禮;鄭氏家族;祭祀;儀式;儀節;生活;祭祖禮儀;禮治家;鄭泳;家族禮儀

      內容摘要:在祭禮的施行過程中,不僅表達了后人對祖先的崇拜,同時也對族人的言行、思想進行規范和管控,實際上祭禮已經成為鄭氏家族加強家族管理的重要手段和方式。二、鄭氏家族“以禮治家”的文化傳統“義門鄭氏”自南宋年間起,經元至明代初期,累世同居于浙江金華浦江縣,曾多次獲最高統治者嘉獎與族表。鄭氏家族在“以禮治家”思想指導下進行禮儀實踐,然而如何施行禮儀,禮儀的具體操作方法是什么,這是鄭氏家族必須審慎思考的重要問題。鄭泳曾指出鄭氏家族禮儀遵循朱子《家禮》文本設定,但時俗變遷是不能回避的現實,同時考慮到鄭氏家族數世同居的特殊性,鄭氏家族理想的禮儀模式應該重視沿襲傳統禮儀模式,這樣能夠充分發揮作為傳統禮儀所具有的權威作用,有時候傳統就是權威,是不可變更的歷史力量。

      關鍵詞:祭禮;鄭氏家族;祭祀;儀式;儀節;生活;祭祖禮儀;禮治家;鄭泳;家族禮儀

      作者簡介:

        摘要:傳統祭禮的歷史傳承對當代推進基層社會治理具有重要的意義。宋元時期,浙江省浦江縣“義門鄭氏”在“以禮治家”思想的指導下,遵循行于今不悖于古的禮儀原則,依照朱子《家禮》制定《鄭氏家儀》。在祭禮的施行過程中,不僅表達了后人對祖先的崇拜,同時也對族人的言行、思想進行規范和管控,實際上祭禮已經成為鄭氏家族加強家族管理的重要手段和方式。

        關鍵詞:基層社會治理 浦江鄭氏 以禮治家 歷史實踐

        在中國文化傳統中,祭祖是一個極富特色的文化符號。在祭禮的發展歷程中,自先秦時期開始興起,后經漢唐宋元明清歷代王朝變遷,一直是社會生活的重要構成。在傳統社會,無論是王朝政府、官僚貴族,還是尋常百姓之家,祭禮早已內化為中國人生命中不可或缺的儀式傳統。傳統祭禮的歷史傳承對當代推進基層社會治理也具有重要的意義。

        作者簡介:邵鳳麗,北京師范大學民俗學博士,遼寧大學文學院副教授。

        基金項目:本文系國家社科基金特別重大委托項目“新中國70年社會治理研究”(批準號:18@ZH011)子課題“百村社會治理調查”項目階段性成果之一。2017年遼寧省教育廳青年項目“遼寧地區家族公共空間中的文化記憶研究”(項目WQN201733)的階段性成果。

        一、朱子《家禮》與中國祭禮傳統

        早在商代時,人們將祖先視為可怕的死者,死者經常制造各種災禍,給生者帶來傷害。為了防止祖先作祟,他們需要舉行祭祀活動,通過奉獻犧牲的方式祈求祝福。胡適在《說儒》一文中說“看殷墟出土的遺物與文字,可以明白殷人的文化是一種宗教的文化。這個宗教根本上是一種祖先教。祖先的祭祀在他們的宗教里占一個很重要的地位,喪禮也是一個組成部分。”①

        到了周代,祭祖禮儀在秉持內在的祖先崇拜的信仰意義外,更增加了穩固國家統治和社會穩定的含義。此時,祭祖禮儀不僅作為一種生活方式而存在,也與國家的統治、社會的安定相聯系。在這種背景下,祭祖禮儀的規范化和制度化被高度重視,最終形成一套上至王侯,下達百姓的完善的祭祖禮儀體系。周代是典型的宗法社會。周王自稱天子,是“大宗”,同姓諸侯尊其為大宗子。諸侯相對于天子是“小宗”,但又是本國的宗子。這種宗法關系直接體現在宗廟設置上。《禮記?王制》謂“天子七廟,三昭三穆,與大祖之廟而七。諸侯五廟,二昭二穆,與大祖之廟而五。大夫三廟,一昭一穆,與大祖之廟而三。士一廟。庶人祭于寢。”②雖然不同階層所設置的宗廟數量不同,但社會各階層都重視對祖先的祭祀。《禮記?大傳》謂“尊祖故敬宗,敬宗尊祖之義也”,又謂“人道親親也,親親故尊祖,尊祖故敬宗”。③可以看出,人們將處于冥冥中的祖先和現實生活里的宗族結合起來,這就使得祭祖禮儀突破了氏族時期單純的精神信仰范疇,結合了國家統治的政治需求和社會良性運行的社會需求。從王朝統治者角度看,天子祭祖能夠提升自身血統的神圣地位,增強自身統治的權威性。從社會運行角度看,祭祀祖先能夠培養人與人之間的血緣親情意識,有利于維持社會的和諧與穩定。隨著社會的變遷發展,周代宗廟體制的內容和形式在后世都發生了變化,但是祭祖的文化傳統卻歷久不衰,成為維持家族人倫關系,促進基層治理,鞏固國家統治的重要保障。

        在傳統社會,禮不僅是個人行為規范,同時具有更深遠的國家政治統治與社會管控功能,這與禮存在的社會環境以及統治階層如何看待和利用禮為國家統治服務有關,“先秦的禮主要用于規范和協調貴族之間的行為;漢朝的禮主要發揮了建設新體制、實現‘大一統’的作用;南北朝時期,禮被突出地用以維護門閥的特權和地位;到了宋代,禮的重心則已向民間的禮教傾斜,而到明、清,民間禮教的發展達到極致”④。與前代王朝不同,宋代統治者對禮進行了重新界定和使用,突出強調禮儀文化的教化作用,重視推進民間禮教的發展。同時,隨著庶民宗族社會地位的提高,他們的文化權利也在逐步擴大,庶民禮儀開始融入到國家禮儀文化體系當中。

        作為“敬宗收族”的重要方式,祭祖禮儀也沉降到庶民社會,與庶民家族生活緊密聯系起來。但是國家禮制并未對庶民祭祖禮儀進行規定,庶民祭祖禮儀需求無法得到滿足。在這種情況下,張載、二程、司馬光等文化精英們積極投身到庶民家族祭祖禮儀的討論中,他們傾注大量精力,發掘祭祖禮儀的理論依據,探討制禮標準,創制行禮模式,試圖通過制定庶民祭祖禮儀規范來解決禮俗矛盾,幫助重建宗族制度,強化宗族控制力,達到重建儒家禮儀盛世、穩固基層社會的目的。

        作為一代通儒,朱熹的一生秉持著宋代知識分子特有的“先天下之憂而憂,后天下之樂而樂”的社會責任感,積極投身于救治時弊的時代潮流中。他認為宋朝社會面臨的諸多問題都與禮之不行有關,朱熹認為士大夫自幼不學習禮儀知識,日常生活中也不踐行禮儀,讓他們完全不懂禮儀。在仕途中,無論是參加國家政事,還是管理鄉民社會,缺乏禮儀教化的后果將會非常嚴重。在禮崩樂壞的現實面前,朱熹開始思考如何恢復傳統禮制,重現儒家禮儀盛世。

        朱熹站在穩固王朝統治、重整日常生活秩序的高度,提出重視庶民家族禮儀問題,并從應用實踐的角度出發,提出了“禮俗調和”的指導思想,要求《家禮》的編訂既重古禮,又援俗入禮,以服務現世生活所需為根本目的。《家禮》創制出了經典祭禮模式,為宋明以后庶民家族生活秩序重構提供了重要的理論指導和文本依托。

        宋代以來,祭禮一方面提供孝道倫理,為社會管控提供內在精神支撐,并通過建構個人身份認同塑造社會秩序;另一方面,傳統祭禮的歷代傳承調動了家族組織、家族精英、鄉賢、普通民眾等多種力量的參與,并發揮了各自的優勢,且各種力量之間取長補短、相互協同,進而推動了祭禮傳承,也有效地實現了基層社會治理。

        總體上看,作為一種重要的文化傳統,祭禮的歷史傳承通過價值引導、柔性協調和組織動員等方式已經相當深入地介入到基層社會治理過程當中,并發揮了積極作用。

      作者簡介

      姓名:邵鳳麗 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:于翠杰)
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