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       首頁 >> 社會學
      百年家庭倫理變遷與新時代倫理建設
      2019年06月06日 10:04 來源:中國婦女報 作者:趙慶杰 字號
      關鍵詞:家庭倫理;夫妻;倫理建設;人倫;道德;家風;家庭美德;變化;父子;重心

      內容摘要:編者按五四運動百年來,與每個人息息相關的家庭倫理發生了巨大變化:家庭人倫軸心從縱向的“父子軸心”向橫向的“夫妻軸心”轉移。在新時代倫理建設中,應該大力加強家庭倫理建設:深刻認識家庭在倫理建設中的始點地位,繼承傳統家庭美德、弘揚優良家風,實行德法共治。百年家庭倫理變遷中國傳統社會是“家國一體”的社會,家庭在社會中居于基礎地位,與此相對應,家庭倫理成為整個倫理大廈的基礎。新時代家庭倫理建設百年回眸,盡管家庭的社會地位、組織形式、人員構成、功能與作用都發生了很大的變化,但家庭的基本特性未變,家庭作為倫理實體的本性未變。通過家庭的倫理訓練與道德啟蒙,個體逐漸走向社會,中國傳統社會秉持的修身、齊家、治國、平天下的“大學之道”,正是家庭倫理生活成為整個倫理生活范型的完美詮釋。

      關鍵詞:家庭倫理;夫妻;倫理建設;人倫;道德;家風;家庭美德;變化;父子;重心

      作者簡介:

        編者按

        五四運動百年來,與每個人息息相關的家庭倫理發生了巨大變化:家庭人倫軸心從縱向的“父子軸心”向橫向的“夫妻軸心”轉移;倫理重心下沉,由長者下移到年輕人和兒童身上。盡管如此,家庭的基本特性未變,家庭作為倫理實體的本性未變。在新時代倫理建設中,應該大力加強家庭倫理建設:深刻認識家庭在倫理建設中的始點地位,繼承傳統家庭美德、弘揚優良家風,實行德法共治。

       

        今年恰逢五四運動一百周年,百年中國發生了天翻地覆的變化,與每個人息息相關的家庭倫理也發生了巨大的變化。

        百年家庭倫理變遷

        中國傳統社會是“家國一體”的社會,家庭在社會中居于基礎地位,與此相對應,家庭倫理成為整個倫理大廈的基礎。五四新文化運動以來,家庭的地位受到強烈沖擊。中華人民共和國成立之后,百廢待興,社會主義中國在艱難探索中前進,家庭倫理觀念發生變化。改革開放以來,經濟社會的飛速前進和計劃生育政策的實施都在深刻影響著家庭結構與功能,家庭倫理觀念進一步發生變化。

        第一,倫理軸心的位移。傳統家庭中血緣重于姻緣,縱向的血緣關系重于橫向的婚姻關系,父子縱軸成為家庭的重心。傳統的血親主位專偶家庭,是農業社會的基本經濟單位。父子相承的家庭經濟和家長權,使父子關系凸現出來,在家庭中占有主要的支配地位。父家長和嫡長子成為整個家庭的人倫軸心,其余的家庭成員則圍繞這個軸心,按照血緣的遠近親疏和長幼尊卑的輩分,形成“尊卑有等,長幼有序”的等級差序結構。因而,維系直系血親關系的“孝”,便成為傳統倫理觀的核心內容。“孝”推及到平輩的旁系血親,則為“悌”。“孝悌”推演到社會,則為“忠信”,由此“孝”成為社會倫理的中心。古人常說的“百善孝為先”“孝為仁之本”,就是把“孝”視為人倫之首,看作至高至善的美德,作為一切倫理道德的基礎。

        隨著農業經濟向工業經濟轉變,商品市場的發展為廣大婦女提供了廣闊的就業領域,她們逐漸取得了相對獨立的經濟地位,改變了完全依賴丈夫的命運。隨著婦女經濟地位的不斷提高,夫妻逐步實現平等,家庭權力從父子相承轉向夫妻當家。人口流動性的加快和計劃生育政策的普遍推行使家庭規模日益縮小,夫妻關系成為家庭中主要的人際關系。于是,家庭在變革中發生了軸心轉移,姻緣開始重于血緣,婚姻關系逐步取代血親關系,家庭人倫軸心從縱向的“父子軸心”向橫向的“夫妻軸心”轉移。

        夫妻軸心小家庭的突出特點,一是家庭人際關系簡單,成員的聯系十分密切,相互關系趨向民主平等;二是夫妻關系受到充分重視,家庭日益變為個人私生活的場所;三是夫妻之間的經濟紐帶日趨萎縮,感情紐帶日趨強化,維系婚姻關系的夫妻之愛開始受到重視;四是親子關系以夫妻關系為轉移,夫妻之間的新型倫理關系直接影響到親子之間的倫理關系。“孝”中包含的尊老、養老的傳統美德,雖然在現實生活中依然存在,卻不再是人倫之首。

        第二,倫理重心的下沉。在傳統的家長制家庭中,倫理的重心在長者身上,由“五倫”向“三綱”的轉化清楚地說明了這一點。在孟子的“五倫”那里,無論是父慈子孝還是兄友弟恭,都是在強調一種雙向互動的權利義務對等的倫理關系,甚至可以說,父慈在子孝之前、兄友在弟恭之前,即長者的倫理義務是首要的,他們對下者負有一定的道德責任。但是,一旦“五倫”轉化為“三綱”,原本對等的雙向的以回報為原則的義務關系,變成了一種單方面的服從關系,長者獲得了倫理重心的絕對地位。作為“一家之長”的父親具有至高無上的權威,他不僅握有家庭的經濟大權,還擁有對家庭成員的絕對支配權。子女只不過是父親的私有物,要絕對遵從父親,聽從父親的支配,沒有獨立人格和人身自由。

        第三,小農經濟的衰落和現代工業經濟的興起徹底動搖了父權存在的經濟基礎。勞動者被大批吸引到工廠企業中,多數家庭失去了社會生產職能,父親不再是生產勞動的組織者和領導者,失去了對家庭成員發號施令的權力,家長權自然衰落。同時,學校教育的普及為子女提供了廣闊的就業前景,畢業后可以憑借學識選擇自己喜歡的職業,改變了子承父業的古老傳統,從根本上改變了親子關系的傳統模式。

        特別是20世紀70年代以來我國實行計劃生育政策,城鄉的核心家庭多數是三口之家。由于獨生子女在家庭中的特殊地位,以及父母對他們的特別的愛,父權進一步被削弱,家庭中增添了民主平等的氣氛。倫理的重心由長者下移到年輕人和兒童身上。目前,在多數家庭中親子之間生活上相互扶持、感情上相互依托、心理上相互理解、人格上相互尊重已成為主流,傳統的“家長制”家庭正在向現代的“民主制”家庭轉化。

      作者簡介

      姓名:趙慶杰 工作單位:中國政法大學馬克思主義學院

      職稱:教授

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:于翠杰)
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