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       首頁 >> 社會學
      多角度開展兒童心理學預防性研究
      2019年06月10日 09:47 來源:中國社會科學網-中國社會科學報 作者:吳楠 字號

      內容摘要:

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      作者簡介:

        兒童心理學研究關注兒童心理發生、發展的特點及其規律,在兒童成長、兒童教育、兒童醫療衛生、兒童文藝、兒童廣播電視等領域具有重要意義。近年來,兒童心理學研究涌現出很多熱點,如兒童的心理理論、自我控制能力發展等。有學者認為,隨著時代的發展和科技的進步,兒童心理學研究應該更好利用新型學科的思路和范式,厘清兒童發展的生物基礎與社會文化環境之間的關系,并更多地著眼于未來,開展預防性研究。

        兒童心理學研究呈現多種趨勢

        兒童心理學的研究對象覆蓋0—18歲的普通兒童、特殊兒童或非典型兒童。南京師范大學心理學院教授劉國雄表示,兒童心理學的研究領域總體上可分為認知能力、個性與社會性的發展,以及可能影響兒童發展的各種外部環境因素,如家庭關系、學校環境、社會文化氛圍、網絡媒體等。

        遼寧師范大學心理學院院長胡金生總結了近年來兒童心理學研究的熱點。一是與兒童學習相關的腦機制研究。通過對兒童大腦的可塑性以及兒童神經發育與教育規律之間關系的研究,希望摸清學習規律對神經生理發育造成的影響,從而更好地制定教學政策;二是關于特殊兒童或青少年的研究,如兒童孤獨癥、多動癥、青少年精神分裂等方面的研究;三是與家庭教育相關的研究,包括探求教育實踐問題背后的規律等;四是研究經濟收入、社會流動等對于兒童生理和心理發育造成的不良影響。當前,兒童心理學理論研究更多地集中在兒童雙過程加工理論、兒童的生態系統論等方面。兒童雙過程加工理論是指,兒童的思維包含理性思維和非理性思維,所以兒童的信息加工過程既有自下而上的加工過程,也有自上而下的加工過程。兒童的生態系統論是指,兒童周圍的生態環境,包括宏觀系統、中觀系統、微觀系統,都會對他們產生影響。

        “作為兒童認知發展理論的鼻祖,瑞士兒童心理學家皮亞杰對兒童心理學的研究具有開創性。他以長期觀察、實驗統計等科學方法,全面研究了兒童的認知水平與潛在能力。”暨南大學兒童創新研究所所長王學文提出,隨著時代的發展,皮亞杰的理論有可修正之處。比如,前運算階段兒童實際年齡可能存在前移、社會發展速度與節奏變化對兒童所處人文環境產生重要影響、兒童身心發展水平提升不平衡等問題,都有待于用新的理論加以研究。

        利用新方法開展研究

        “當前的心理學研究熱點通常是問題導向型,以事后干預的形式存在。而一個領域的發展與成熟,更應該著眼未來,從而減少個體發育與發展過程中的阻礙。發育順暢、學習高效、兒童成長,是未來兒童心理學研究需要重點關注的方向。”王學文認為,就兒童心理學而言,除個體行為糾偏研究外,重點應開展預防性研究。例如,通過對群體的觀察和記錄,在復雜場景中找到線索,制作更科學簡明的量表,從而更利于問題的分析、反饋與糾偏,更好地促進相關研究成果的應用。“未來,隨著人工智能的發展,心理學研究將更為重要,也更為艱難。對此,兒童心理學研究可從創意產生、兒童直覺意識等方面著手,為人的可持續進步提供基礎保障。”他說。

        劉國雄表示,兒童心理學不斷拓展人類有關兒童發展的科學認知,未來應在探明兒童發展基本規律的基礎上,利用神經科學、人工智能等新興學科的思路和范式,從更精準的角度解析兒童發展的神經和生物機制,及其與社會文化環境等諸多系統之間的關系和交互作用。此外,兒童心理學知識與兒童身心健康密切相關,相關知識的普及也顯得尤為重要。研究成果的普及是一個相對緩慢的過程,需要多方參與。就心理學研究者而言,普及的前提是腳踏實地的研究。因此,應將如何構建兒童心理健康的社會支持系統,作為研究的視角之一。具體而言,可以從童年早期就開始采集兒童認知與社會性發展的綜合數據,采用縱向追蹤、多維度監測等方法,研究兒童心理發展的水平與趨向。

        胡金生表示,心理學學者在從事相關研究時,要立足中國實際,著眼于解決現實生活中兒童或青少年發展的問題;要充分挖掘中華傳統文化中的優良教育資源,用孩子們喜聞樂見的方式指引他們身心健康發展。要開展多學科聯合研究,兒童成長與發展過程中遇到的問題涉及社會學、人類學等多個學科,因而需要多學科聯合攻關。要改變對學者及其工作成果的評價方式,提升對科普工作的認可度。鼓勵更多的企業投入到相關心理學產品的開發中,帶動學者的研究。同時,還要鼓勵學者產出多種形式的成果,多出版一些科普類的成果。

      作者簡介

      姓名:吳楠 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:孫志香)
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