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       首頁 >> 社科基金 >> 基金管理 >> 成果發布
      “指”“馬”之喻辨析
      2019年06月04日 11:08 來源:中國社會科學網-中國社會科學報 作者:朱光磊 董穎潔 字號

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        公孫龍子的“白馬非馬論”與“指物論”是先秦名家兩個重要論斷。而巧合的是,《莊子·齊物論》中也有“以指喻指之非指,不若以非指喻指之非指;以馬喻馬之非馬,不若以非馬喻馬之非馬也”之言。顯然,二者同時言及“指非指”“馬非馬”,且表述極為相似。但細究之下,二者想要表達的義理卻不甚相同。公孫龍子僅在名言范圍內探討純粹概念之分野獨立;莊子則貶斥名言概念而主張超越名言是非的紛擾。

        概念離物 各自獨立

        在公孫龍子“指物論”思想中,“物莫非指,而指非指”一句為其義理之總綱。“物莫非指”中“物”即世間萬物本身作為自然存在的狀態,無名無稱;而“指”即人所賦予事物的概念名相。“物莫非指”一句就是說天下萬物莫不是在人的認識下被賦予的概念。在這里,公孫龍子意在強調概念名相的重要性,即世間萬物都要通過抽象概念進入人類的知識系統,才能被人認識。“而指非指”一句中,顯然前后兩個“指”的意義并不相同。前一個“指”即概念、名相,而后一“指”即刨去人為所賦予的概念后的事物自然存在。所以,“而指非指”即概念不等同于概念所指向的物體自身。概念是人為創造的抽象符號,雖然可以指稱事物,但本質上與“物”是相離的。公孫龍子在這里把概念與事物自身作了剝離,旨在承認概念所具有的獨立性,即概念一經形成便可與事物自身分離而獨立存在。

        理解“白馬非馬”的關鍵在于“非”字。時人與公孫龍子論辯,一般人總是將其理解為“不屬于”,而公孫龍子則將其理解為“不等同于”。因此,公孫龍子所說的“白馬非馬”只是在說白馬不等同于馬,而并不是否認白馬屬于馬。公孫龍子對“白馬非馬”的論證主要從概念內涵與外延兩方面來進行。其一,“馬”的概念內涵僅就形質而言,而“白馬”的概念內涵則兼有形色,是普遍的白落實在具體的馬的形質上。其二,“馬”這一概念的外延包含了黃馬、黑馬等各種顏色的馬,其馬的材質不定于任何普遍的顏色,而“白馬”這一概念外延僅包含白馬,其馬的材質定于普遍的白色。由此,在公孫龍子看來,“白馬”不等同于“馬”,二者是兩個分別而獨立的概念。

        常人使用概念,都用意在指稱相應的事物,而公孫龍子不同常人的地方在于從具體事物中超越出來,回頭來辨析概念自身,既確立了概念的獨立性,又區別了概念與概念之間的差異。公孫龍子的思路傾向將概念形上化、靜止化、永恒化,這樣就非常類似于古希臘的關于“理念”的形上學思考。

        名言人偽 止言息辯

        當時名家之言廣為流布,莊子“指非指”“馬非馬”之言實是借公孫龍子而來,但他這么做究竟想表達何意呢?

        莊子此言看似令人費解,郭象注則十分清晰:“夫自是而非彼,彼我之常情也。故以我指喻彼指,則彼指于我指獨為非指矣。此以指喻指之非指也。若復以彼指還喻我指,則我指于彼指復為非指矣。此以非指喻指之非指也。”“指”既然由公孫龍子而來,故應作指謂事物的名相概念理解。“我指”即我的規定、我的看法、我的概念,這是人為造作的結果;而“彼指”則是你的規定、看法、概念,也是人為造作的結果。若我從自己的規定與立場出發來非議他人不合于自己標準,反之,他人也可以用他的觀點和立場來指責我的觀念為非,由此互相非難。莊子這句話是在說,世上人人都是自是而非彼的,都是囿于自己的看法立場而不能見其他,紛紛擾擾難以斷絕。所以,互相以自己的“指”、自己的“馬”來與別人爭辯。

        莊子后文接著就說:“天地一指也,萬物一馬也。”由此可見,莊子是不認同是非爭辯、名言紛擾這種狀態的。莊子主張的是要從世間名言物議中跳出來,這里的“一指”“一馬”并非是天地萬物有一個統一的標準,而是要超越世間的各種“指”“馬”是非,把世間所有的標準立場、對待差別都放平了。在這個境界上,天下皆同于自是、均于相非,要說對,所有的看法都是對的;要說不對,所有的看法也都不對。這里的“一指”“一馬”其實就是“道”的境界,即天地萬物各是其是,即為自然。莊子“指”“馬”此言有兩個層次,其一是名言、概念、是非的層次,這是莊子所要否定的;其二則是超越是非而平齊物議、止言息辯的層次,這是莊子所認同的。

        二者思想旨趣不同

        公孫龍子與莊子雖同時有“指”“馬”之喻,但兩人理路不同,二者思想顯示出很大的差異。

        第一,公孫龍子建立概念名相的確定性,莊子打破概念名相的確定性。公孫龍子認為,概念一經指定,便具有確定性。而在莊子看來,這些所謂的概念、名言其實都是人為的矯作,實際上是靠不住的,并不具有確定性。

        第二,公孫龍子注重分解路數,莊子注重消解路數。公孫龍子認為概念與事物自身之間、概念與概念之間都是分離的。他對概念嚴加分別,確立概念的獨立性,走的是分解的路子。而莊子認為概念是人主觀選擇的產物,本就不是事物自身,對概念嚴加分別更會使事物的真實本然被人為支離。因此莊子主張要超越世間概念名言、是非爭辯,將一切對待分解渾化于“道”之自然中,走的是消解的路子。

        第三,公孫龍子講求名理,莊子講求玄理。公孫龍子強調概念的作用,其背后的支撐是對名理的追求。公孫龍子關注的是人的知識理性,在他看來,人通過理性思維抽象歸納出事物所具有的特征,給事物規定概念,進而通過對概念的嚴加區分來認識世界,形成各種知識。概念就是人類知識理性的體現。而莊子并不注重人的思慮心與名理思辨,而是講求玄理,他認為世俗名言與是非爭辯都是囿于成心所致,執迷其中會使得心靈為其所役,因此莊子主張通過消解世俗的知識系統來塑造自己的價值意義。

        公孫龍子作為先秦名家的集大成者,他對于純粹概念的抽象思考,對人的知識理性的單純關注,在以生命體驗為核心的中華傳統文化中實為異類。而莊子對于公孫龍子思路的消解,則是將名理重新消化于玄理之中,凸顯了道家齊物的至高境界。我們現在看來,不能再將公孫龍子的學說視為“琦辭怪說”,而是需要融合名家與道家的思想,在玄妙的人生境界中,進一步去容納包含理性思辨的確定性。

       

        (本文系國家社科基金青年項目“先秦諸子社會治理的思想體系與理論判釋”(18CZX041)階段性成果)

        (作者單位:蘇州大學政治與公共管理學院;蘇州大學文學院)

      作者簡介

      姓名:朱光磊 董穎潔 工作單位:蘇州大學政治與公共管理學院;蘇州大學文學院

      課題:

      本文系國家社科基金青年項目“先秦諸子社會治理的思想體系與理論判釋”(18CZX041)階段性成果

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:齊澤垚)
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