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       首頁 >> 社科基金 >> 基金管理 >> 成果發布
      老子公與私的辯證智慧
      2019年06月04日 11:10 來源:中國社會科學網-中國社會科學報 作者:汪韶軍 字號

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        《老子》第七章:“天長地久。天地所以能長且久者,以其不自生,故能長生。是以圣人后其身而身先,外其身而身存。非以其無私邪?故能成其私。”私而不能成其私,唯無私者,方能成其私。此處蘊藏著公與私的辯證智慧,卻在古今遭受無數批評與誤解,不可不辨。

        “身先”“身存”是效果而非目的

        古今很多學人(包括朱熹、王夫之等古代儒者,以及徐復觀、錢鍾書等現代學者)都認為,“后身”“外身”不過是為了“身先”與“身存”,老子所言之“無私”看似高尚,其實是為了成其私。老子說出這樣的話,表明他是個自便自利且操術甚巧的小人;老子計議之心太多,其流弊所及,便滋生出楊朱的為我論。

        這種解讀歪曲了經文的本意。圣人并非先有身先身存的預謀,再有意地以后身外身為手段來實現之。民國時期王力對此有過精到的辨析:“圣人后其身而身先者,亦自然之勢,非圣人有先民之術也。不期然而然,謂之勢;期然而然,謂之術。勢之所至,乃自然之結果;術之所致,則人為之結果”。后身外身不是“術”,身先身存只是“勢”,后者是伴隨前者自然會有的效果。這種效果的獲得,實乃勢所必然、理必如此,非有求而然。天地無心,不自生故能長生。作為天地的效法者,“圣人常無心”,他不是有心于身先身存,再去后身外身。

        相應地,老子并非把無私利他當作利己的有效手段來加以倡導。“以……故……”句式清楚地表明,無私與成其私之間是因果關系,而非手段與目的關系。北宋蘇轍就曾指出:“彼其無私,非以求成私也,而私以之成。”張松輝認為,從后身到身先是需要條件的,老子卻無視轉化條件,認為后身就能身先,這種想法本身是幼稚的。筆者則以為,老子本來就沒有教人將身先身存、成其私懸為目的,這樣一來,當然不能指望他談什么轉化條件。總之,圣人之后身、外身、無私是真誠的,絕非為進而退、為謀私而裝作無私。

        “以反求正”論似是而非

        有許多論者認為,世人不知曲致之理,但求直遂,而老子教人“以無爭爭”“以無私私”,正如馮友蘭所謂“南轅正所以取道北轍”。馬蔭良、劉笑敢、林光華等人明確將此概括為“以反求正”。筆者以為,這類解讀似是而非,極易引人誤解。

        “以反求正”意為通過非a來追求a,此與老子思想不合。其一,他沒有教人把身先身存懸為目的來加以求取,反而一再強調“功成而弗居”“功遂身退”。可見,無論事先事后,老子都強調后身外身,這證明他主張徹底地放棄不爭。此外,通過仔細辨析還可發現,在一系列對子中,老子認為“反”就是“正”。例如,守柔便是強(“守柔曰強”),不是別有所謂強。而且,守柔只是守柔,并非意圖以此來戰勝他人。其二,老子的言論是對世人的建言。一旦世人信從,即便他們誤把身先身存、成其私當成追求的目標,其行為也會變得少私寡欲,而不是自私自利。其三,a是世俗目標,但按老子的方法行事與按常規方法行事,所獲得的效果是不同的。老子實則是說,a是不值得追求的,我們只管知止于非a,反而會不期然而然地收獲大寫的A。

        要想徹底厘清老子的思想,還需對“身”“私”做一深入辨析。同一“身”字,在“后身外身”一說中遭到否定,而在“身先身存”一說中受到肯定,其內涵必定迥別。古今都有人注意到這一點,如明代陸西星把此二“身”區分為肉身與道身,當代學者韓林合將其區分為非本真之身與本真之身,張默生、牟鐘鑒、劉笑敢則從中看出小我與大我的區別。事實確乎如此,“身”在《老子》中有不同含義:后身外身之“身”是貪欲的代名詞,這是有待消解的對象;身先身存之“身”則指生命,這是需要保任的對象。

        同理,無私是對通常意義上私的否定;成其私的“私”,則不可作普通的私看待。“圣人”作為老子對侯王的期待,所成就的“私”不是一般意義上的一己私利,而是百姓的安樂和邦國的穩固。“公乃王,王乃天,天乃道,道乃久,沒身不殆”,正是此意。國泰民安、政權穩固正是開明君主夢寐以求的。從世俗角度看,這就是所謂的“成其私”;然論其實質,卻是在私百姓之余而私己,或者說,其結果是人我兩利。

        成己在成物中實現

        圣人不期先而自先,不期存而自存,無私反而能成其私。為什么會這樣呢?這需要緊扣君民關系來考察。后身而身先,是因為后身之圣人被百姓認為德行高尚,因而受到推戴不得不先;外身而身存,是因為外身之圣人不會為了一己私利去侵害百姓,因而不會受到百姓的傷害;圣人無私,百姓才能各遂其私,百姓若各得所欲,則圣人亦能成其私矣。這就是君民之間的互動。成物即所以成己,成己在成物中實現。

        世人多認形軀為“我”,并爭先恐后地通過擴張貪欲去貴身,結果卻是“五味令人口爽,馳騁畋獵,令人心發狂”。再則,自私其身者不知人我實為一體,他們營營為一身之謀,而不顧及他者。但人都是社會性的存在,當個體追逐一己私欲時,勢必會擠壓他人的生存空間,這樣就動與人爭,豈得無患乎?可以斷定,如此貴身,適足以害身。

        《老子》十三章云:“吾所以有大患者,為吾有身;及吾無身,吾有何患?”老子基于“有身”之有害而提倡“無身”。這里,“有”“無”不可理解為存在與不存在,而應理解成執著與不執著。“有”如同“生而不有”之“有”,“有身”指執著于身體這個軀殼(實指擴張貪欲),“無身”則破除這種執著(實即“少私寡欲”)。后身外身便是無身。一個人只有無身,不為一己私利所縛,才能一方面使自己的生命有一合乎自然的生長發展,另一方面也不侵擾到他者。

        利己主義不利己,無私反能成其私,這話看似矛盾,卻是生活的真相。《老子》八十一章“圣人無積,既以為人己愈有,既以與(予)人己愈多”,說的正是公與私的辯證關系。

        正視現實人性

        馮友蘭批評老子巧于算賬,把合乎道德的行為當作趨利避害的方法。還有人認為,老子之說與儒家“正其誼不謀其利,明其道不計其功”相較,有著義利公私之別。筆者則以為,“成其私”語似不雅,其實是借“私”來勸誘“有身”者也。清末易佩紳對本章可謂體貼入微,其言曰:“老子救世之心甚深切也。世人莫不自愛其生,然不能推其愛于人,且往往因自愛其生,以妨人之生。為君長者,更因愛一己之生,以害天下之生。而究之所以,自愛者適以自害也……圣人不期先而自先,不期存而自存,皆成其私也。既以無私者正告之,復以成其私投世人之私,而冀其樂從,亦正告之也。不善讀者以私意窺老子,轉謂老子之學為自私,則誤矣。”世人大多談“私”色變,老子不唱“無私”的高調,體現了他對現實人性的正視。老子深知私之不能盡除亦不必盡除,故以“成其私”來引導人們無私,可謂用心良苦。在筆者看來,這不是缺陷,反而是老子思想的難能可貴之處。

        無私而成其私,一語道破公與私的辯證關系。遺憾的是,古今許多人都不理解這種超越常識俗見的思路,致使老子蒙上不白之冤,更有甚者則有意無意地把它誤用作陰謀權術。而造成誤解與歪曲的根源在于,人們拘泥于字面,沒有意識到老子經常在不同意義上使用同一字詞。有鑒于此,在探究《老子》思想旨趣時,我們決不能停留于片言只語或字面義涵輕率地下斷論或做抽象的討論,而應緊扣語境,會通原始材料并結合其思想的內在邏輯來追索概念的具體所指。

       

        (本文系國家社科基金后期資助項目“可能的《老子》——文本對勘與思想探原(道篇)”(16FZX004)階段性成果)

        (作者單位:海南大學人文傳播學院)

      作者簡介

      姓名:汪韶軍 工作單位:海南大學人文傳播學院

      課題:

      本文系國家社科基金后期資助項目“可能的《老子》——文本對勘與思想探原(道篇)”(16FZX004)階段性成果

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:齊澤垚)
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