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       首頁 >> 社科基金 >> 基金管理 >> 成果發布
      結合科技創新實踐 提高社會學本土自覺
      2019年06月05日 10:15 來源:中國社會科學網-中國社會科學報 作者:黃斌歡 字號

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        當前,構建中國特色哲學社會科學學科體系、學術體系、話語體系“三大體系”的工作正如火如荼。如何進行理論創新、人才培養,構成當前高等學校社會科學人才培養的重要議題。結合課堂改革實踐,在學生培養環節進行創新,引導社會學學生關注科技行業發展及青年從業者的社會狀況,并通過扎實研究提出干預方案,以此實現理論發展、人才培養、社會價值實現的多重收獲,并增強其社會學本土自覺。

        社會維度是解釋創新的重要因素

        深圳是我國科創之城。如何解讀深圳科技創新的奧秘,是社會學學科的重要命題。我們將解釋這一問題與培養創新性社會學人才進行有機結合,在課堂中緊密結合社會現實發展狀況,以問題探究式教法對學生進行訓練,深度解讀深圳科技創新的奧秘,產生關于創新的理論,并以此激發學生的主體意識。

        社會學與科技行業發展密切關聯。社會維度是解釋創新為何成功的重要因素,如伯特和維亞斯的研究表明,技術創新解釋了創新成功的25%,而社會創新則解釋了創新成功的75%。因此可以說,社會因素是理解創新成功的密鑰。進而,科技行業快速發展,離不開千萬科技行業從業者的奮力投入,其社會狀況與科技發展密切關聯。由此,社會學切入創新研究就具有了多個入口。一是挖掘科技創新內在邏輯,分析不同的行業、產業的發展規律,政府、市場與社會等各種利益相關者在產生技術創新中的相互關系。二是關注創新的參與者,關注該行業從業者的生活與生產狀況,挖掘他們在生產生活中的境況與問題,分析現有制度之下該群體的福利現狀,提出針對這一群體所存在問題的干預措施,以社會學的力量創造美好生活,為科技人員專心投入科技創新夯實基礎。結合以上方式,我們將社會學與科技創新進行有機關聯,并以此作為訓練社會學學生的現實課堂。

        科技創新與社會生態密不可分

        在社會調查方法的課堂上,教師要求學生針對深圳科技創新的現實,以問題式研究的方式深入現場。師生合作展開多種多樣的實踐研究,如針對科技園創新生態的研究、科技行業從業者的工作與生產狀況的分析。在此過程中,學生們發揮主動性,以多種方式進入田野,努力打開科技創新的“黑箱”。一組學生利用家庭成員開辦公司的背景,直接到公司進行自上而下的深度訪談,采訪科技行業的相互關聯,探究從業者的生活狀況和就業經歷。另一組學生則在夜里九點鐘以后來到科技園地鐵站,在地鐵上采訪加班結束坐車回家的年輕科技人員,收集他們的困難與呼聲。另有不少學生使用網絡問卷、網絡調查等方式收集科技人員尤其是年輕從業者的工作狀況與問題。通過自上而下、自下而上等多種不同的研究路徑,為了解這一群體的狀況提供了扎實及豐富的基礎。

        研究發現,深圳科技創新的成功與深圳特定的社會生態密不可分。經濟空間、制度空間、物理空間的高容忍度,以及高低搭配錯落有致的創新生態的完成,構筑了深圳科技創新成功的重要密碼。研究還發現,不同年齡段科技行業從業者的工作與社會狀況呈現明顯的分化。部分早期進入行業的從業者能夠較好地適應,對自身工作與生活較為滿意,對自身社會地位評價較高,已進入中等收入群體,能夠較好地投入到持續的創新工作中。但是還有大量年輕從業者的狀況比較糟糕,難以成功扎根深圳,可能成為中等收入群體的邊緣群體。盡管他們從事的工作非常重要,但所獲報酬以及身處的生活條件非常惡劣,事實上已經被甩到中等收入群體之外。他們所面臨的最重要困難是住房問題,其次是工作壓力,還有福利不足、社交瓦解等其他因素。面對這一處境,部分青年使用彌補、延遲、分割等策略與方式處理自身生活與工作的矛盾,而政府和社會對他們的關注和扶持遠遠不夠。伴隨社會對創新重視程度的提高,青年科技人員的社會重要性在日漸增加,但是其個人價值的實現卻存在多重障礙,二者之間不斷擴大的差距,成為限制創新持續發展的突出障礙。就此,研究呼吁改善青年科技從業者的社會處境,從住房、交通、福利、教育等方面夯實其支持體系,培育社會組織、豐富其社會連帶,使之能夠開展正常的社會生活,為他們更好地投身于科技創新提供堅實后盾。

        從課堂創新走向社會創新

        經過一系列學習,學生們能夠普遍意識到自己的學習任務與所處現實的密切關聯。這一過程,所產生的效果不僅可以促進學生培養創新,也將對社會發展產生有效回饋。

        首先,我們將所研究的結論通過多種方式加以呈現,呼吁社會尤其深圳市政府提高對青年科技從業者的關注與政策扶持,改善相關人才的處境,彌合其社會價值與其個人價值實現之間的巨大張力;其次,我們也希望參與和時代密切關聯的一系列研究,并通過投身這一歷史洪流,產生關于粵港澳大灣區的創新形成的理論知識;最后,以對創新進行社會研究的方式,還能有效培養具有高度時代敏感性和本土意識的研究者,培養粵港澳大灣區社會研究的自覺意識,從而建構關于本土社會發展的理論體系。在科技發展的緊要關頭,能培養出更多具有本土意識的社會科學人才,使之化身社會建設的成員,幫助深圳有機進行社會建設,并助推一線科技從業者更好地投入科技發展前沿,或許是社會科學實踐歷史使命的最佳方式。

       

        (本文系深圳市教育科學研究課題“高校體制、社會認知與大學教育形態的比較研究”(zdzz17002)、深圳大學教研課題“基于文化回應教學理論的高校課堂創新研究”階段性成果)

        (作者單位:深圳大學法學院社會學系)

      作者簡介

      姓名:黃斌歡 工作單位:深圳大學法學院社會學系

      課題:

      本文系深圳市教育科學研究課題“高校體制、社會認知與大學教育形態的比較研究”(zdzz17002)、深圳大學教研課題“基于文化回應教學理論的高校課堂創新研究”階段性成果

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:齊澤垚)
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