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       首頁 >> 社科基金 >> 基金管理 >> 項目成果
      構建助推式教師教育模式
      2019年05月23日 09:02 來源:中國社會科學網-中國社會科學報 作者:李陽杰 字號

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        技術的迅速革新為新時代教師教育事業發展注入了源源不斷的動力。2018年9月30日,教育部出臺《關于實施卓越教師培養計劃2.0的意見》(教師〔2018〕13號),強調利用大數據、人工智能等技術為教師進行教學決策、改進教學計劃等提供參考依據,且已在部分地區開展試點工作。隨著技術與教師教育的聯結愈來愈緊密,技術如何融入教師教育之中,成為當前教師教育變革的重要環節。助推式教師教育模式恰能回應這一關鍵問題,作為一種基于師范生立場、具有非強制性特征的模式,它不僅可以被視作嫁接新技術與教師教育的“橋梁”,還融合了多種價值取向,有效彌補了已有教師教育模式的不足,為現有的教師教育生態增添新活力。

        助推理念:

        消解單向度的桎梏

        已有教師教育模式呈現出單向度的特征:一方面,教師教育過程存在著對引導機制關注不足、教育性缺失等問題,忽視了師范生的主體地位;另一方面,教師教育內容亦未能滿足師范生的多元需求。概言之,現有的教師教育模式多未能站在師范生的立場上考慮教師教育中的引導機制、課程設置、階段劃分等,憑借預設邏輯來控制教師教育的各個環節或使得教師教育陷入單向度的桎梏。

        基于助推理念的教師教育模式致力于消解單向度的控制,是對當前我國教師教育生態的重要補充。具體來說,近年來基于行為科學、認知科學等的助推理論逐漸成為公共政策與公共服務領域的熱門話題之一,強調人在做出決策時并非始終是理性的,受到自身和環境因素的影響,甚至存在被控制的可能。若運用非強制性的助推方式,既能夠在一定程度上影響人們的決策行為,又能夠保證其相對自主地做出決策。將助推理論引入到教師教育中,其實質即扭轉已有教師教育模式的單向度特質,高度重視師范生在教師教育過程中的自主性以及在教師教育內容上的需求,憑借非強制的助推方式影響其行為。

        需要強調的是,技術在助推式教師教育模式中并不具有決定性的作用,甚至技術本身也帶有助推的性質,以潛移默化的方式影響著師范生的行為。師范生也并非無條件地接受大數據、人工智能等新興技術所提供的信息,而是以此為基點,結合自身與學生的具體情況、教學情境以及教師教育者等因素,從而對已有的行為做出反思。

        沖破壁壘:

        融合多種價值取向

        教師教育的價值取向是明確新時代我國教師教育發展方向的前提,關乎教師教育者應培養師范生的哪些方面以及應該如何培養等系列基本問題。對于這一命題的回答,在歷史上出現過四種具有代表性的觀點:能力本位取向的教師教育強調能力在教學過程中的重要作用;知識本位取向的教師教育關注知識在師范生專業發展中的重要地位;人本主義取向的教師教育傾向于培養師范生自主發展的能力;批判主義取向的教師教育則旨在讓師范生承擔起改造社會的責任。當前,我國教師教育正逐漸邁向實踐取向,但認知上存在誤識以及技術理性的持續滲入,使得實踐取向的教師教育出現“偏航”的情形。其中,認知層面的誤識主要表現為,過分追求教師教育實踐的標準化與技藝化,持續深入的技術理性則表現為教師教育實踐為技術所束縛、師范生缺乏自主意識。

        有鑒于此,近年來學界已有學者強調融合價值取向的重要性,相較以往在認識上有了很大的跨越。在不同取向的張力與沖突中,新的融合似乎正在萌芽。然而,如何沖破各種價值取向之間的壁壘,已有研究對此多未做出明確的回應。助推式教師教育模式則致力于實現多種價值取向的融通,它不僅注重師范生的知識與能力,且重視師范生基于知識與能力要求、大數據等技術所提供的信息、教師教育者的助推實踐結合具體情境展開反思性實踐,并推動師范生關注所教學生之間的文化差異,彌補了現有實踐取向教師教育的諸多不足。

        實踐路徑:

        多因素交織構筑助推模式

        在助推式教師教育模式中,教師教育者、大數據技術等因素均具有助推的性質,甚至師范生也成為自身的助推者。多因素交織共同影響著師范生的反思性實踐,在滿足師范生需求的基礎上推動其主動地調整自身的行為。需要強調的是,教師教育者、新興技術等在助推師范生的同時,實質上也在潛移默化中“被助推”,逐步構建起新時代我國教師教育的助推模式。

        具體來說,首先,教師教育者既須在教學過程中關注知識的傳授,亦應在日常與師范生的互動中關注其關鍵能力的發展,無論是知識的傳授抑或是能力的發展,乃至于激發師范生對于所教學生文化差異的關注,都可采取助推的方式影響師范生的行為。例如,通過提示能力與知識的要求、有選擇地發送師范生教學數據及其所教學生相關數據、發送預警信號等。在此過程中,教師教育者也愈來愈明確師范生的需求與傾向以及自身所存在的不足之處,在及時調整助推行為的同時,也在專業發展層面獲得間接助推。其次,大數據等新興技術促使學生表現數據、師范生教學數據、教學情境數據、文獻數據等匯聚于教師教育線上平臺,師范生可以自主結合不同類型的數據有針對性地改進教學行為,而師范生教學行為的改善又將為教師教育線上平臺提供更有參考價值的數據。最后,師范生在主動搜索、參考教師教育線上平臺數據的基礎上,結合自身特征、學生特征、教學情境等因素展開反思性實踐,并實時上傳教學感受、學習需求、學生表現等相關數據,從而間接地成為自身專業發展的助推者。

       

        (本文系2012年度加拿大社會科學基金項目“中加學校教育與教師教育的互惠學習研究”(89520121011)階段性成果)

        (作者單位:華東師范大學教育學部)

      作者簡介

      姓名:李陽杰 工作單位:華東師范大學教育學部

      課題:

      本文系2012年度加拿大社會科學基金項目“中加學校教育與教師教育的互惠學習研究”(89520121011)階段性成果

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:齊澤垚)
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