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       首頁 >> 圖書 >> 頭條
      張珊:勾勒五言詩的發展歷程
      2019年04月09日 09:24 來源:中國社會科學網-中國社會科學報 作者:張珊 字號

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

       

        無論是古代詩文評的著作,還是史書傳記中史臣對一段時期文學的概括總結,抑或是其他散見的論文篇章,都試圖勾勒對文學史的整體認知,尤其是對重要作家與作品的認定。

        以問題為中心

        20世紀以來,西學東漸與傳統詩文評相結合,中國自己的文學史學科隨之產生,文學史著作陸續出現。關于魏晉南北朝詩歌發展史的論著,就屬于文學史中斷代與分體的細化研究。而在大量的文學史著作中,又以通論性或專題性的研究為多,細致勾勒魏晉南北朝這一文學自覺時代詩歌發展過程的論著并不多。把從建安到南朝詩歌發展歷史串通起來,并探究其規律與新變,是書寫這段詩歌史的任務。由于六朝文獻的嚴重散佚,根據少量篇章甚至斷簡殘篇恢復文學史的原貌,進而推測一時的創作及詩歌發展動向,便需要在對文獻全面掌握和精細解讀基礎上,再帶有宏觀的理論視野和通變意識,才能勾勒其發展史。新時期以來,王鐘陵《中國中古詩歌史》、葛曉音《八代詩史》、錢志熙《魏晉詩歌藝術原論》等專著陸續出現,《魏晉南北朝詩歌史論》(修訂版)(傅剛著,商務印書館2017年7月版)便是其中論點新穎的一部。傅剛以中古文學研究著稱,其《文選》《玉臺新詠》《左傳》研究引人注目。

        全書共十一章,分別論述建安、正始、太康、玄言詩、陶淵明、南朝、山水詩、永明體、宮體詩、北朝詩、庾信等時期最重要的詩歌體式或人物流派。每章中既有結合時代風貌、作家個人經歷的大的背景分析,又有對詩風轉變、作家特質等問題的具體剖析,還把各個時期最關鍵的問題單獨講解。這些講解絕非按部就班,而是處處以問題為中心,且都是關于文學發展的肯綮問題。作者謙稱其為少作,正因為是年輕時所寫,書中滲透著強烈的問題意識,并結合自己的體悟,給出大膽設想與精密論證。比如“緒論”中就提出五言詩何以產生于漢代,何以自《詩經》后幾百年為詩歌發展的空白期,五言詩何以取代四言詩,何以五言詩能成為中國古代詩歌最主要形式等諸多問題,進而提出五言詩一產生就注定要走上格律化道路。全書要解決的問題,正是勾勒五言詩的發展歷程,探究它何以走向格律化,并展開對各個時期詩歌變化的分析。

        把握文學史大脈絡大問題

        書中的通變意識體現在文學形式間的影響與滲透,不同時期文學主題的轉變,不同作家間的繼承與影響等。就詩歌發展階段而言,太康文學、玄言詩時常受到詬病,而作者以發展的眼光,指出太康文學中的繁縟與模擬、玄言詩存在的進步性。針對每種詩歌形態的來龍去脈,書中也有溯源,并著重探析詩人間的互相影響。比如論潘岳時,找尋悼亡作品對他的影響,還將其與張協對比。而對張協以雨景為代表摹物之作的分析,指出寫雨小賦對他的影響,而他又影響了傅玄、傅咸等。論山水詩時,提出最早寫作者是楊方、李颙、庾闡等,其后記游、寫景、悟理的結構隨玄言詩的興起而一度消失,直到謝靈運時才恢復,并形成穩定的記游、寫景、興情、悟理四段結構式。正是在對結構分析基礎上,對山水和田園詩有了更客觀的界定,這包括山水美在于奇,奇主動,富于變化,適于近體詩的起承轉合;而田園美在于淡,淡主靜,更適于古體。

        除了對文學史大脈絡、大問題的把握外,該書對于具體時段的研究也值得推崇。在研究方法上,不僅有時代與個人的背景分析,而且有對詩人審美追求、趣味的分析,乃至對詩句的溯源、考證與比較,微觀與宏觀結合。以具體章節為例:作者將建安文學分為三段,認為抒情性是建安詩歌總體特點;而對于作家主體身份的介入、寫作方法上抒情取代敘事等問題的提出,均為理論的升華。至于曹操運用樂府古題寫時事,以及詩歌中處處體現的真氣,曹丕對“魏響”的開創及將詩歌變為文人詩,曹植的骨氣與辭采華茂等,也解析深入、透徹析理。

        分析別出心裁

        其他章節也有出彩之處,比如指出太康文學社團包括以晉武帝、晉惠帝、愍懷太子等帝王為中心的文學集團、以石崇為中心的“金谷園詩會”、以賈謐為中心的“二十四友”,以張華為代表的創作與評論中心,這是全面而客觀的歸類,而通常學人多關注“二十四友”及其中幾個代表作家。又如,作者提出太康文學的前驅是傅玄與張華,經過他們的過渡才迎來太康文學的繁榮,而通常的文學史著作對二者論述很少。另外,《詩品》中提出西晉最有名的詩人是“三張二陸兩潘一左”,但“三張”卻作品寥寥。該書作者指出“三張減價”的原因是不預“二十四友”。

        書中對具體詩人、作品的分析,無論篇章立意、結構安排,還是寫作技法、遣詞用句,均力求闡釋得精細嚴謹而別出心裁。比如,談陸機寫作法規的建立,繁縟贍密的特色通過賦法、對偶、析文來體現,這是篇章結構的特色,而工巧綺練則是字詞句表現的特色。再如,分析謝朓選擇山水詩與謝靈運因懷才不遇而發泄為山水詩不同,謝朓將“懷祿情”與“滄州趣”結合表現出清麗平淡之思,篇章完整、清新省凈;而山水詩由繁蕪到省凈卻與家族的興衰有關聯。作者還抓住詩風特色,尤其是傳統詩文評的常用術語進行分析。比如論三曹,則有從古直悲涼到便娟婉約和文采氣骨兼茂的不同;論玄言詩,則要談“淡”“虛”“曠”“沖”“靜”;論南朝詩歌,則“淡”和“清”是關鍵詞;論陶淵明,則詩中“新”“欣”二字使用率頗高。

        (作者單位:蘇州大學文學院)

      作者簡介

      姓名:張珊 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:蔡毅強)
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