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       首頁 >> 特色小鎮
      風起云涌 遍地開花 文旅特色小鎮亟待“糾偏”
      2019年05月20日 10:53 來源:經濟參考報 作者:楊振之 字號
      關鍵詞:產業;城鄉;文化;特色小鎮

      內容摘要:必須清醒認識到,當前文旅特色小鎮實則普遍存在若干誤區,可能影響后續發展,甚至造成顯著損失。

      關鍵詞:產業;城鄉;文化;特色小鎮

      作者簡介:

        自2016年起,特色小鎮成為我國新一輪城鎮化建設的重要抓手,包括文旅特色小鎮的各類題材特色小鎮項目可謂“遍地開花”。然而,必須清醒認識到,當前文旅特色小鎮實則普遍存在若干誤區,可能影響后續發展,甚至造成顯著損失。

        文旅小鎮背離鄉村發展初衷

        筆者調研發現,現有文旅特色小鎮或為行政區劃單元上的“鎮”,或成產業園區、風景區的“區”,背離了探索城鄉融合模式和作為鄉村發展的初衷。

        目前,文旅核心資源“拿來主義”盛行,各地的文旅小鎮普遍缺乏自主培育文旅內容的必要能力與耐心,以及對本土文化商業價值的認知與自信。殊不知“明星”項目其實不膚淺,文化內功才是關鍵,并且時尚價值衰減極快,只有具備“造血”能力,才能保障產業發展持續性。

        與此同時,旅游業角色存在“因果倒置”的情況。文旅特色小鎮并不意味著“只搞旅游”,失去產業體系支撐的旅游業是無米之炊,“優勢產業+旅游”才是合理的因果邏輯,旅游的核心功能實為增進產業體系價值的黏合劑與催化劑。

        有些地方將文旅小鎮等同于“地產大盤”,只要占下土地,開發思路有沒有無所謂。文旅特色小鎮與地產大盤的核心要素門類實則不同。文旅小鎮建設運營是慢工細活的系統工程,而非簡單粗暴的“大盤式”快消品,文旅內容供應商的主動權必將日益加強。

        此外,忽視全維度聯系而選擇封閉式發展。一些文旅特色小鎮只專注大規模鎮區建設,與周邊鄉野農園在空間、景觀乃至產業、活動等方面相互割裂。隨著環保、國土等法規政策日趨細化嚴格,以及城鄉居民公共服務、環境保護和游憩福利訴求不斷提升,這一模式將難以維系。

        將文旅價值落到實處

        上述問題的解決之道,基礎在于正確認識并精準貫徹特色小鎮的“特”與“小”,充分發揮文旅產業在綜合性、帶動性和可持續性等方面的優勢,令項目真正落地生根。

        首先,文旅特色小鎮應統籌“六特”。

        特在定位。特色小鎮在空間、人口、產業等方面均相當于田園城市基本單元,定位于全維度城鄉交互樞紐和平臺,根據主導功能訴求不同,可被理解為旨在疏解中心城區功能的衛星城鎮或引領鄉村地區發展的增長極。

        特在功能。特色小鎮的必要前提是構建契合其專項功能定位的主導產業,特別是要圍繞主導產業集聚產業生態圈,借此形成兼具經濟、文化、社會、自然生命力的本地社區,以求促進專項功能輪動升級發展。

        特在產業。特色小鎮務須具有明確的產業布局思想,持續強化主導產業特色優勢,促進全要素優化集聚,尤其是要推動農村生產關系深刻變革和農村消費模式迭代演進,立足產業工具從根本上消弭城鄉二元化問題,通過增強經濟交互謀取全維交融。

        特在生態。特色小鎮應將生態空間和設施達標配置作為優先考量,保持原真自然與農園是關鍵思路,在實際操作中當嚴控氣、水、土等硬指標,繼而優化景觀、芳香等“軟”感覺,將“望得見山,看得見水,記得住鄉愁”落到實處。

        特在人文。產業經濟能夠為特色小鎮帶來要素和人才的初始吸引力,而其恒久魅力則一定源自獨具韻味的地域風物。需要強調的是,特色小鎮的人文靠“熬”而不靠“砸”,要沉淀出支撐充分的個性特質。在此前提下,通過與時俱進的新技術、新視角加以演繹彰顯,打造高價值IP和優勢文創門類,保障特色小鎮文化生命力保持和第三產業輪動升級。

        特在使命。最后但也是最重要的,特色小鎮建設務須不忘初心,時刻追問本質與使命,即推進城鄉統籌與可持續活力,落實城鄉福利和發展機會均等化。特色小鎮絕非要將城市化進程無限蔓延至鄉村地區,而是要探索出更具全維度可持續性的發展模式,令城、鎮、村各就各位,留住青山綠水,維系鄉野農園。

        文旅特色小鎮應“以小謀大”

        特色小鎮的“小”實際上是要求建成兼具城鄉優點的“城市綜合體”。它的“小”是相較于傳統城市而言的,并非是指其規模或容量明顯劣于現代城市,而是說它的生長邊界是清晰且可控的,同時在該地域范圍內,單體城市的無序擴張被以有序化發展的田園城市群所取代。以上便是特色小鎮的空間增長與控制特征。

        應當看到,此處的“鎮”實際上是一個相對于單體城市的小型城市群,它以社區和鄰里為基本單位,發展的方向是形成多個相互聯系且富有生命力的城市綜合體。單體城市的弊病被兼具城鄉優點的小型城市群所取代,這是特色小鎮的建成目標,同時也是其內在機理和規劃基礎。如何建成具有生命力的本地社區,這是直接影響特色小鎮建設成敗的關鍵所在。與此相適應的是,研究者們需要在規劃圖紙之外,將積淀在地域風物中的地方個性充分發揮出來,使小鎮既是宜居宜業的,也是內聚、文化、生態以及現代的。

        從“用戶”視角看,依托特色產業建成有生命力的本地社區,這是特色小鎮建設思想的元發點,同時也是形成城鎮內聚力的必要約束。因為落腳點和歸宿在于“人”,因此過度偏重經濟訴求,實際上會將特色小鎮建設逐漸引入深淵。由此,文旅特色小鎮的“小”,不僅是要為進一步的城市化留足空間,更重要的是它的內在要求是要在對田園景致的保持中,滿足人們對于現代生活的需要。這里的需要不僅是住房和就業,更有文化需求和鄰里交往。

        綜上,文旅特色小鎮當堅持“產、城、人、文”四位一體有機結合的基本原則,以文化旅游產業為核心,因地制宜的發掘、演繹和運用地域優勢資源,發展成為聚合“美好生活”全要素,助力城鄉統籌發展,釋放鄉村地區社會經濟增長潛力的最優平臺。

        (作者為四川大學教授、博士生導師 成都來也旅游發展股份有限公司創始人)

      作者簡介

      姓名:楊振之 工作單位:四川大學

      職稱:教授、博士生導師

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:禹瑞麗)
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