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       首頁 >> 文聯
      從西湖邊的碑刻看非遺保護
      2019年06月10日 15:52 來源:美術報 作者:俞越 字號

      內容摘要:

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        每年6月的第二個周六,是我國“文化和自然遺產日”。今年“文化和自然遺產日”的主題為“非遺保護 中國實踐”,口號為“在生活中弘揚,在實踐中創新”“傳承文化根脈,共筑民族未來”“非遺保護,你我同行”。

        作為世界遺產的西湖和我國第一批國家級非遺的金石篆刻,金石為西湖增添了歷史厚重的底色,西湖為這些金石的存在提供了詩意,兩者融合,交相輝映,彰顯出杭城深厚的歷史、文化及精神內涵。

        對于金石文化,如何在生活中弘揚?如何在實踐中創新?本報記者采訪了西湖申遺專家組組長陳文錦,請他從西湖邊的碑刻出發,聊聊非遺保護的那些事。

        西湖碑刻有多少

        肇始于9世紀、成型于13世紀、興盛于18世紀,2011年被列入新的世界遺產名錄的“西湖文化景觀”,是中國歷代文化精英秉承“天人合一”的哲理,在深厚的中國古典文學、繪畫美學、造園藝術和技巧傳統背景下,持續性創造的“中國山水美學”景觀設計最經典作品,因此,“淡妝濃抹總相宜”的西湖既有如畫的風景,優美的傳說故事如白蛇傳說、梁祝傳說、蘇東坡傳說等,又有歷史古跡如岳王廟、西泠印社等。作為西湖非遺的重要的組成部分,發現、解讀歷史重要來源的碑刻,西湖邊有多少?在哪里能看到?

        “西湖邊的碑刻主要集中在杭州各文博單位中,如岳廟、西泠印社、浙江圖書館孤山分部就有許多碑石。其中杭州孔廟內的杭州碑林收藏最多,共有碑、帖、墓志等500多件;西泠印社也有不少,藏有浙江第一石:《漢三老碑》;西湖十景碑刻也是值得一提的,此外還有散建的碑刻,如蘇軾在大麥嶺留下的‘蘇軾、王瑜、楊杰、張濤同游天竺,過麥嶺。’”陳文錦表示,西湖到底有多少碑石,他沒有完整地統計過,統觀這些碑石,有官方的也有民間的,涉及到歷史文化的方方面面,御書、史實、科技、法帖、繪畫、儒學、宗教等諸多領域,是數千年杭州人民在文明創造中流傳下來的珍貴文化財富,是整個西湖文化景觀的重要組成部分,反映了西湖變化的過程,增添了歷史感。

        在繼承中,對金石進行梳理

        “在《武林金石錄》(西泠印社的吳隱根據丁敬的殘稿重新編撰)中,載錄武林(現杭州)御書題刻、學宮碑刻、梵寺經幢、摩崖墓碑等各類碑刻銘文,是較全記錄杭州碑刻的歷史材料。但經過歲月的變遷,很多書上記載的石刻,現已找不到原碑或是被風化破壞得非常嚴重了,所幸還有拓片的存在。”陳文錦認為,拓片對研究石碑能起到很好的補充作用,許多已散失毀壞的碑刻,因有拓片傳世,才能感受原碑刻的內容及風采,但在這方面整理和研究還遠遠不夠。“一方面我們要繼承傳統,篆刻藝術在新的歷史條件下有新的發展,但不能忘記對歷史的發掘,對金石材料的研究。”

        哪些碑刻有拓片?有多少版本?藏于哪里?

        “在浙江省博物館、圖書館、高校圖書館和文保單位中,或多或少都藏有一些,”陳文錦表示,如西泠印社,本身位于孤山,有著天然的優勢,還以“保存金石,研究印學,兼及書畫”為宗旨,作為傳承,社員們在精進自身金石篆刻水平的同時,更把保護、整理、研究這些珍貴的金石遺產當作己任,將其發揚光大。“各文保單位中庫藏的拓片,也要像書畫那樣進行梳理,并且分檔分級,如果能將其出版,那是再好不過了。”

        保護,也要與時俱進

        聊起這些石刻,陳文錦很是“遺憾”,隨著時間的推移,風化、剝蝕在所難免,如何做到有效的保護,延長這個過程?

        我們常見的法子是在石碑外建亭子,做圍欄,或是罩玻璃罩子。據陳文錦介紹,石碑外罩玻璃的做法很早就有,他還在文物局工作的時候就采用這個辦法,這能有效地防止酸雨對石碑的侵蝕,阻止人為破壞,但現在看來也存在一些問題。“罩子中的石碑就像是人待在密閉的汽車中,在太陽照射下,里面溫度升高,無法散熱,反而加速了它的風化。”陳文錦建議,罩子不能密封,至少要留條縫讓空氣流通,或者是把石碑放在亭子或廊中,避免太陽直射。

        在保護中發展、在發展中保護、在傳承中利用。“來到杭州西湖,不妨多到‘花港觀魚’、‘郭莊’等西湖江南園林的代表地轉轉,往西湖的縱深處深入,去領略西湖的美。”

        (俞越)

      作者簡介

      姓名:俞越 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:趙萌)
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