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       首頁 >> 爭鳴 >> 人文科學爭鳴
      閔子騫孝行的文學流傳
      2019年06月10日 09:58 來源:光明日報 作者:陳國龍 鄢化志 字號

      內容摘要:在傳統孝文化中,始見于敦煌遺書,由元代郭居敬編定的“二十四孝”,是極為流行的孝道典型。

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      作者簡介:

        在傳統孝文化中,始見于敦煌遺書,由元代郭居敬編定的“二十四孝”,是極為流行的孝道典型。今天看來,其中涌泉、臥冰、哭竹、嘗糞、恣蚊的迷信或自虐,局限都頗明顯,郭巨埋兒的愚孝更遭到宋代林同與明人方孝孺、林俊、戴君恩、何塘、李默、李世雄、刁包,清人李光地、袁枚、洪亮吉直至“五四”時期魯迅等人的質疑抨擊。而民間影響最大的閔子騫“蘆衣順母”卻受到稱許,其“母在一子寒,母去三子單”展示的寬容仁愛,即使以當代價值審視,也不失為充滿正能量的傳統孝文化精華。

        閔子之孝首見于《論語·先進》,“子曰:孝哉閔子騫!人不間于其父母昆弟之言”,并無具體事跡。《孟子》《莊子》《荀子》《尸子》《晏子春秋》《孔叢子》《孔子家語》及《亢倉子》等雖論及閔子之孝,亦皆不言蘆衣之事。

        漢代始有閔孝蘆衣之說,見于《韓詩外傳》《說苑》和桓帝建和元年山東嘉祥武梁祠石刻文字。王充《論衡·知實》與蔡邕《琴操·崔子渡河操》側面涉及。但最早敘述閔孝蘆衣故事的《韓詩外傳》,今本無此條,僅見于朱熹《四書或問》與曾慥《類說》所引《韓詩外傳》今本佚文:“子騫早喪母,父娶后妻,生二子。疾惡子騫,以蘆花衣之,父察知之,欲逐后母。子騫啟曰:‘母在一子寒,母去三子單。’父善之而止。母悔改之,后至均平,遂成慈母。”

        此事又見向宗魯《說苑校證·佚文輯補》輯唐《藝文類聚》句段,唯只言“衣單”,不及“蘆花”,也無后母悔改情節,“一子寒,三子單”作“一子單,四子寒”。宋《太平御覽》三次摘引今佚劉宋師覺授《孝子傳》中閔孝故事,內容略同,唯將《外傳》的“蘆花”作“藁枲”,“三子、四子”,作“二子、三子”。今存武梁祠石刻則是漢代原文:“閔子騫與假母居,愛有偏移,子騫衣寒,御車失棰。”

        此閔孝蘆衣故事唯一現存的漢代文本雖簡短,但已述明“單衣順母”的情節主體,現代各劇種《鞕打蘆花》仍基本如此。

        閔孝“蘆花”自《韓詩外傳》流傳兩千多年,影響遠非“二十四孝”其他事例可比,但主流文化卻鮮少提及。從《毛詩·素冠傳》引“閔子守喪三年”而不引“蘆衣順母”之孝,到論語“孝哉閔子騫”的歷代注家如鄭玄、何晏、孔穎達、邢昺、朱熹等,均不言“蘆衣”。至清代《花部農譚》作者焦循,才引入其《論語補注》。司馬遷《史記》述及《韓詩外傳》,而《仲尼弟子列傳》不收《外傳》的“蘆衣順母”,歷代正史也不采用。清《四庫簡目》說《韓詩外傳》《說苑》“姓名時代或有抵牾,多與先秦諸子相出入”(顧炎武《日知錄》已言《外傳》卷三孟嘗君請學于閔子章時代有誤)。樸學家則明確質疑。呂留良《四書講義》云:“俗傳閔子故事,不知其有無。其情事語句俱鄙俚,必非春秋時所記!”崔述《洙泗考信余錄》更以為是好事者以己意附會:“孔子稱閔子之孝,吾知閔子之孝而已;閔子之所以為孝,吾不得而知也!”

        歷代回避質疑,原因有三:先秦無此記載、情事語句鄙俚、漢文獻眾說紛紜,如閔子兄弟數量、閔子衣服質地、閔子所駕馬車(武梁祠石像)或牛車(樂山漢墓石刻)、閔子因寒失手的棰與靷、閔父覺察過程、后母有無悔改下文等均有齟齬,但也正說明“蘆衣”本屬《漢志》所云“道聽途說之所造”的虛構性傳聞。這恰是現代文學中小說的概念。因此《韓詩外傳》“蘆衣”故事實為閔子之孝文學流傳的發端。

        孔子“點贊”閔子,其孝行當不止“蘆衣諫父”一事。見于秦漢古籍的尚有《公羊傳·宣公元年》的“要绖而服事”、《毛詩·素冠傳》及劉向《說苑》的“三年喪畢操琴”、《亢倉子》的“問孔子孝與道”等,但影響甚微,唯“蘆衣順母”以多種文體踵事增華流傳至今。其原因除了儒孝傳統與王朝倡導,更應在于“蘆衣”故事的文學性。如同唱空城計的諸葛亮比《三國志》的本人更為世所知那樣,閔孝通過“鞭打蘆花”普遍流傳,實得力于文學這一“中國傳統文化中最容易被人理解、接受的一種形態”(張岱年語)。

        魏晉至隋近四百年間,“蘆衣”故事在文字上一直以歷代書目所載的各種《孝子傳》流傳。是以閔子之孝在先秦僅以抽象道德流傳于諸子,漢魏六朝才以具體事件流傳于士林。

        唐代“有容乃大”的文化氣派在各方面都呈輝煌。宋代主流是精微細膩的士大夫文化,但市民文化勃興也使局面一新,閔子孝行的傳播由此出現一系列新變。首先是語言趨俗。胡適曾說初唐白話詩源于佛經翻譯,詩僧王梵志見于敦煌遺書的俗語詩達三百余首。如“欲得兒孫孝,無過教及身”等,已開勸孝俗詩先河。中唐《女孝經》《女論語》文字亦趨淺俗,敦煌抄本《二十四孝押座文》與《孝子傳·閔子騫》的語言則近于宋元戲劇的曲詞與賓白。其次是語體趨整。先秦漢魏六朝述及閔子,率用散文。至唐宋不僅有元稹“昔公孝父母,行與曾閔儔”、宋歐陽澈“閔子家風惟啜水”等韻句,且有源乾曜奉命作《閔子騫贊》、蘇轍《次韻徐正權謝示閔子廟記及惠紙》、林同《閔子騫》、金朋說《閔子騫》等閔子專題詩作。七言長詩《故圓鑒大師二十四孝押座文》雖未現閔子之名,但“柔和諫要慈親會”等句顯然是對閔子諫父的闡釋。在各類蒙書、家訓中亦多見三、四、五、六、七言成段或整篇韻文。雖詩味不多,但以朗朗上口的韻句傳播閔孝事跡,效果自非散文可比。再次是空間擴展。以前閔子之孝主要流傳于宮廷官署和文士學林,唐宋則隨宗教宣傳和蒙書普及而流行于道場、學堂、書會、勾欄乃至西域邊陲敦煌。唐李瀚《蒙求》的“王裒柏慘、閔子衣單”和朱熹《小學》、呂祖謙《少儀外傳》等蒙書,更使“蘆衣順母”流傳于城鄉書塾及千家萬戶。

        閔子之孝在隋唐前的受眾基本是宮廷君臣士林學者,唐宋則遽然拓展至宗教信徒、市井細民、蒙童及家庭成員,勾欄瓦舍的宣講更潛蘊著元明清戲劇的受眾。

        元明清戲曲小說繁盛,詩歌誦讀和戲劇演出使閔孝故事在社會底層更為普及。郭居敬、王克孝的《二十四孝圖詩》以啟蒙讀物流傳于城鄉書塾,也廣為社會所知。這固然因其適應專制時代教育需要而為統治者倡行,而此書編寫形式的文學性與民眾傳統倫理心理的契合,似乎尤為關鍵。如閔孝事跡先以五十余字講述故事,再以五言絕句“閔氏有賢郎”檃栝情節,語言俚俗,朗朗上口,再輔以諫父留母插圖,直觀可感。如此方便受眾,故能廣受兒童與成人喜愛。唐宋閔孝詩寥寥可數,入明數量激增,僅萬歷張云漢《閔子世譜·藝文》就收錄詩詞近百首,當與“圖詩”流行相關。傳為閔子故鄉的江西臨川、撫州,山東歷城、曲阜、魚臺、沂水、費縣,安徽宿縣、蕭縣、靈璧等地的明清志書中,均有數量可觀的閔孝詩作。雖多敷衍綱常,藝術性不高,但和蒙書韻文一樣,對閔子孝行的流傳,均有推波助瀾之功。

        《二十四孝圖詩》將閔孝事跡從蒙學推廣到社會,以高明《閔子騫單衣記》為首的元明清閔孝劇作,則以聲容并茂的情境摹擬,把觀眾帶入諫父留母現場,親身感受孝親摯情,故而備受青睞。讀詩文須識字,看演出則不論文士白丁,只要不聵不盲,都可觀劇入心,更利于閔子孝行的流傳。徐渭所言宋元舊篇《單衣記》已佚,但從作者在其《琵琶記》中宣稱的“不關風化體,縱好亦枉然”,可知《單衣記》當為《琵琶記》姊妹篇,如周貽白先生說:“僅觀名目,可知其亦為‘教忠教孝’而作。”此后明嘉靖萬歷間有張鳳翼《蘆衣記》傳奇、汪湛溪《孝義記》、沈璟《十孝記·蘆衣御車》,清鄭光祖《一斑錄》所述《蘆花記》、唐英《蘆花絮》雜劇、小說《歧路燈》所言《蘆花記》、存于《雙紅堂文庫》的《匯劇堂鈔本·蘆花記全串貫》等。雖然除唐英《蘆花絮》《蘆花記全串貫》今存,沈璟《蘆衣御車》存數曲,其余均佚,但從相關記述可知,始見于《韓詩外傳》的“閔子蘆衣”短章,經戲劇家博采雜收,已敷衍出篇幅冗長、角色繁雜、情節曲折的社會生活畫卷。如《曲海總目提要》所述,《蘆花記》在“父察單衣逐母為閔諫而留”主線之外,人物增添閔子妻、弟與弟媳、外公外婆、傭工趙彪、盜賊劉展雄、顏路等角色,情節更增加后母加害子騫、子騫兄弟義感盜賊、劉展雄率眾降魯、顏路閔父結為兄弟之類悠謬荒唐情節,已與閔孝本題漸行漸遠,但仍可見俗文學的關注用心,客觀推進了閔子孝行的傳播。

        乾隆間出現花部說,蘆花題材被京劇和各種地方戲、民間小戲、曲藝說唱搬演,并以圣諭宣講背景下出現的說唱小說《宣講集要》《孝逆報》等流行于民間,使市井與鄉村文學進一步融匯。《鞕打蘆花》成為京劇旦角黃(桂秋)派代表劇目。豫劇、蒲劇、晉劇、紹劇、梆子戲、花鼓戲、道情戲、泗州戲、山東茂腔、木偶與皮影戲等都有此劇目,曲藝如皖北大鼓、豫東清音、青海越弦、東北二人轉、南方木魚、單弦瞽唱、河州調、五更調等都有同名唱段,也是北京琴書泰斗關學曾的保留節目。傳為閔子故鄉的宿州,至今仍在上演國家非遺劇種墜子戲的2016年新編劇本《少年閔子騫》。

        文學流傳的閔孝,比經典和官方流傳更入人心,甚至有人因文學而關注經典。如《一斑錄·優伶激勸》記《蘆花記》演出云:“觀劇者亦發天良,多引‘人不間于其父母昆弟之言’,共相贊嘆!”連質疑蘆衣真實性的呂留良也認可其教化功能,認為“足發人倫情理之變。世間后母之不慈者固多,然極惡不可感化者亦無幾,只是為子者未必能盡其道耳!”可見蘆衣順母雖系文學演繹,嚴謹學者確乎不可以此論閔子之孝,但對千千萬萬普通家庭而言,閔子騫的孝悌、寬厚、屈己利人、顧全大局品性,實與現代“誠信、友善”價值觀相通。閔子孝行的內涵與文學傳播功能,對當今的家庭家風建設,仍有現實意義。閔子孝行的文學流傳對當今文學創作與研究,也不失為有益的資源。

       

        (作者均系安徽省中國特色社會主義理論體系研究中心宿州學院基地教授)

      作者簡介

      姓名:陳國龍 鄢化志 工作單位:

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