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       首頁 >> 爭鳴 >> 社會科學爭鳴
      在中國傳統文化中,家訓的形式較為廣泛,如家令、家誡、家戒、家規等—— 古代家訓中的廉政文化
      2019年06月10日 16:04 來源:北京日報 作者:陳忠海 字號

      內容摘要:作為家風的重要載體,家訓歷來也受到人們的重視,在古代眾多著名家訓中,廉政文化是所強調的重要方面之一,至今仍值得學習和借鑒。

      關鍵詞:

      作者簡介:

        中國人一向重視家庭建設,重視良好家風的培養與傳承。作為家風的重要載體,家訓歷來也受到人們的重視,在古代眾多著名家訓中,廉政文化是所強調的重要方面之一,至今仍值得學習和借鑒。

        古代的家訓,修身、立志是一項重要內容

        對于家訓,《辭源》的解釋是:“家訓言居家之道,以垂訓子孫者。”在中國傳統文化中,家訓的形式較為廣泛,如家令、家誡、家戒、家規等,其內容在家范、家禮、家約以及教子詩、示兒書、家書中也經常有所涉及。《尚書》有《誡伯禽》一篇,講的是周公在其子伯禽前往外地上任前提出6點訓示,主要內容是居安思危、謹慎做事等,這被認為是中國最早的家訓。其后,家訓文化一直綿延傳承、長盛不衰,著名的如《章氏家訓》《顏氏家訓》《朱子家訓》《袁氏世范》等,其中許多名言警句至今仍膾炙人口。

        中國傳統文化強調修身與立志。在古代的家訓中,修身、立志是一項重要內容,諸葛亮在《誡子書》中說:“非淡泊無以明志,非寧靜無以致遠”,在《誡外甥書》中說:“夫志當存高遠,慕先賢,絕情欲,棄疑滯,使庶幾之志,揭然有所存。”稍后的嵇康在《家誡》中強調“人無志,非人也”,他訓導兒子:“若志之所之,則口與心誓,守死無二,恥躬不逮,期于心濟。”南北朝時顏之推在《顏氏家訓》中說:“及至冠婚,體性稍定;因此天機,倍須訓誘。有志尚者,遂能磨礪,以就素業;無履立者,自茲墮慢,便為凡人。”明代王陽明在《示弟立志說》中也指出:“夫志,氣之帥也,人之命也,木之根也,水之源也。”

        兒女們從小立志,這是父母的心愿。所立之志,有的強調勤學成才,有的強調忠信篤敬,有的強調守身自律。西晉時羊祜在《誡子書》中說:“愿汝等言則忠信,行則篤敬。無口許人以財,無傳不經之談,無聽毀譽之語。”《顏氏家訓》告誡子孫千萬不要不學無術:“或因家世余緒,得一階半級,便自為足,全忘修學;及有吉兇大事,議論得失,蒙然張口,如坐云霧;公私宴集,談古賦詩,塞默低頭,欠伸而已。”宋朝時呂本中認為修身立志是未來做一名清廉官員的基礎,他在《官箴》中說:“當官之法唯有三事:曰清,曰慎,曰勤,知此三者則知所以持身矣。”通過加強個人修養以省思慎獨、克己自律,這是古代大多數人的共識,也是古代家訓所強調的重要方面。

        歷代家訓往往都提到勤儉持家

        節儉是中國人的傳統美德之一,《周易》說“君子以儉德辟難”,《墨子》說“儉節則昌,淫佚則亡”,李商隱在《詠史》詩中說“成由勤儉破由奢”。歷代的家訓往往都會提到勤儉持家,諸葛亮在《誡子書》中說:“君子之行,靜以修身,儉以養德。”《顏氏家訓》強調:“儉者,省約為禮之謂也,吝者,窮急不恤之謂也。”宋朝時倪思告誡后人:“儉則足用,儉則寡求。儉則可以成家,儉則可以立身,儉則可以傳子孫。”明末時朱柏廬在《朱子家訓》中以“黎明即起,灑掃庭除”為開篇,強調“一粥一飯當思來之不易,半絲半縷恒念物力維艱”,這些都體現出對子孫后代注重節儉、勤儉持家的要求和期望。

        在古人看來,節儉不僅是家庭生活中的美德,而且可以上升到治國理政的高度去看待。《逸周書》記載,周文王告誡兒子說:“厚德廣惠,忠信愛人,君子之行。不為驕侈,不為靡泰,不淫于美。”唐太宗李世民在親自撰寫的《帝范》中說:“夫圣代之君,存乎節儉。富貴廣大,守之以約;睿智聰明,守之以愚。不以身尊而驕人,不以德厚而矜物。”清朝康熙皇帝在《庭訓格言》中教諭子孫應當“清心寡欲”,認為這是保持基業長青的關鍵。

        對于各級官員來說,養成節儉的生活作風還有助于廉潔從政。范仲淹以清廉為官著稱,在他的教育下,兒子范純仁也成為一名清廉的官員,范純仁通過切身體會提出“惟儉可以助廉”。司馬光在家訓中告誡兒子“由儉入奢易,由奢入儉難”,《袁氏世范》提醒子孫后代千萬不要因奢靡而不量財力,認為那些都是“妄費”。晚清名臣丁寶楨告誡兒子:“家用務宜節省,肥濃易于致病,不如清淡之養人。華服適滋暴殄,不如布衣之適體。試看做官之家,奢侈無度者,究有幾人可長久?”

        古代家訓更強調,君子愛財,取之有道

        中國人崇尚重義輕利,具體到為官從政,強調必須首先做到公私分明,不能假公濟私、因公廢私。戰國時田稷擔任齊國相,曾“受下吏之貨金百鎰”,母親得知后告誡他“非義之事,不計于心。非理之利,不入于家”,田稷“慚而出,反其金,自歸罪于宣王”。類似的事情還發生在晉朝時陶侃的身上,他曾是一名管理漁場的小吏,利用職務之便將公家一壇干魚化為己有,陶侃將這壇魚送給母親,母親拒而不收,寫信批評兒子公私不分:“以官物遺吾,非惟不能益吾,乃以增吾憂矣!”宋朝時,歐陽修的侄子歐陽通理在外為官,打算買一些當地出產朱砂送給叔父,歐陽修認為這種做法不妥,寫信批評侄子說:“汝于官下宜守廉,何得買官下物?”

        “君子愛財,取之有道”這句大家耳熟能詳的話出自《增廣賢文》,這部書里就匯集了許多古代的家訓。古人不反對取利,但反對不擇手段地逐利。明朝時龐尚鵬在《龐氏家訓》中說:“田地財物,得之不以義,其子孫必不能享。古人造‘錢’字,一金二戈,蓋言利少而害多,旁有劫奪之禍。其聚也,未必皆以善得之;故其散也,奔潰四出,亦豈能以善去,殃其身及其子孫。”清朝時吳汝綸作《諭兒書》,其中說道:“作官之錢,皆取之百姓,非好錢也,故好官必不愛錢,吾雖無德,豈愿以此等錢豢養汝曹、私妻子哉?”

        公私分明才能拒腐防變,除此之外還要謹慎交友,這也是古代家訓強調的重要方面。孔子教導學生:“益者三友,損者三友。友直,友諒,友多聞,益矣。友便辟,友善柔,友便佞,損矣”。《顏氏家訓》中說:“與善人居,如入芝蘭之室,久而自芳也;與惡人居,如入鮑魚之肆,久而自臭也。墨子悲于染絲,是之謂矣,君子必慎交游焉。”曾風行于唐宋之際的《太公家教》引荀子的話說:“蓬生麻中,不扶自直;白沙在涅,與之俱黑。”

        中國人重家國情懷,重視家庭教育,在中國人的傳統觀念中家與國始終緊密相連,強調“求忠臣于孝子之門”,認為“一室之不治,何以天下家國為”。在這種家國同構的傳統精神下,家風不僅是自家庭院之內的事,而且關聯著整個天下,而綿延不斷的家訓文化也就成為一筆寶貴的精神財富。

       

           (作者為文史學者)

      作者簡介

      姓名:陳忠海 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:賈偉)
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