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      基層政府治理能力亟待系統深入研究 ——訪江西財經大學財稅與公共管理學院副教授歐陽靜
      2019年06月10日 10:10 來源:中國社會科學網 作者:明海英 字號
      關鍵詞:基層治理;弱治理;強治理;縣級政府

      內容摘要:我國基層治理雖然一直是歷史學、政治學和社會學等學科經久不衰的話題,但是關于當下基層治理尤其是以縣域為單位的治理機制的研究仍然缺乏。圍繞以縣域為單位的相關治理問題,記者采訪了《強治理與弱治理》的作者、江西財經大學財稅與公共管理學院副教授歐陽靜。

      關鍵詞:基層治理;弱治理;強治理;縣級政府

      作者簡介:

        我國基層治理雖然一直是歷史學、政治學和社會學等學科經久不衰的話題,但是關于當下基層治理尤其是以縣域為單位的治理機制的研究仍然缺乏。圍繞以縣域為單位的相關治理問題,記者采訪了《強治理與弱治理》的作者、江西財經大學財稅與公共管理學院副教授歐陽靜。

        中國社會科學網:基于實地調研,您發現基層治理中存在“弱治理與強治理”。請簡要介紹下這種現象。

        歐陽靜:在縣域治理實踐中,縣級黨委根據中央、省、市上級黨委對經濟社會發展的整體思路和本縣經濟社會發展的具體情況,通過黨委會議的形式,依據治理事務的輕重緩急,將重要的、緊迫的治理事務轉化為中心工作,然后運用縣域治權去完成中心工作。

        縣域治權及其相應的中心工作機制能解釋縣域治理實踐中“強治理與弱治理”共存的現象。從縣域治理看,列為中心工作的治理事項,如招商、城鎮建設、工業園區建設、計生、新農村建設,以及諸如非典、地震等突發性災害,主要是通過縣域治權來運行,其治理因此表現出“強治理”特征。而鄉村公共文化、村民矛盾糾紛、鄉村教育、鄉村環境衛生、醫療等公共事務屬非中心工作,則表現出“弱治理”特征。

        但中心工作與非中心工作的界限并非固定不變,而是會相互轉換。一旦中心工作通過縣域治權達到了政策預期目標就會轉為非中心工作,比如計劃生育。而一些非中心工作則會因國家政策目標與社會治理需求轉為中心工作,比如近期的扶貧和環保被多地縣域政府納為中心工作,運用縣域治權進行治理。

        中國社會科學網:為什么小事中的“弱治理”與大事中的“強治理”內在統一于縣級政府的治理邏輯之中?

        歐陽靜:從治理的過程來看,所謂的大事之所以能夠完成,在于圍繞大事縣級政府有一套行之有效的組織和動員機制。由于自上而下的考核機制仍然是以GDP的總量和增長速度為主要指標,縣級政府便將主要的資源配置到與之相關的領域,并發展出諸如運動式治理、行政發包制等一系列手段以做好此工作。

        由于中心工作牽扯了大部分精力,負責日常治理的領導和職能部門較難以足夠的精力投身其中,只能疲于應對。于是,在一定的階段,經濟發展的速度越快、任務越重,基層社會的公共秩序越是失序,經濟發展的“強治理”與公共事務的“弱治理”便應運而生。

        顯然,“弱治理”的產生并非源自縣鄉等地方政府自身能力的弱化,而是其有限的精力和資源配置不平衡的結果。集中精力辦大事是當前地方政府權力運作中的鮮明特征。

        中國社會科學網:從現有研究看,相對于鄉鎮政府的研究,專門以縣級政府為對象的研究還比較單薄。請談談您將研究視野投向縣級政府的機緣以及您的主要分析框架。

        歐陽靜:隨著鄉鎮政府自主性下降,基層社會的矛盾開始涌向縣級政府。因此,在對基層政府治理能力的考察中,我們自然將視野投向縣級政府這個層面。從邏輯上而言,相對于被弱化的鄉鎮政府,縣級政府是一級職權比較完備的政府,應有相應的能力回應基層治理需求,也應有能力應對日益復雜的社會矛盾。但縣級政府在實際治理中是否具有實現各類治理目標的治理能力,仍然是一個需要深入和細致考察的問題。從現有研究看,相對于鄉鎮政府的研究,專門以縣級政府為對象的研究無論是在政策研究部門還是在學界,都顯得較為單薄。也就是說,我們目前不僅對縣級政府的治理實踐缺乏全面而客觀的了解,而且對基層政府的治理能力也缺乏系統且深入的研究。

        已有的基層政府研究主要關注于基層政府權力和相關制度的重構,集中于討論基層政治體制與國家政治體制建設之間的關系,很少討論基層政府在實現國家政策目標、維護鄉村秩序和滿足鄉村社會公共服務需求的治理能力問題。于是,我將縣級政府納入基層治理視野,從治理主體、治理機制、治理資源等方面呈現縣域政府的治理實踐及其治理能力,在此基礎上提出了分析基層治理能力的框架——“縣域治權”。

        “縣域治權”深受米格代爾和邁克爾·曼的啟發,也是從治理能力的角度來探討基層治理權力的性質問題。具體來說,縣域治權是指縣域政權組織凝聚、配置和統籌治理資源所運用的“統合權”。在權力性質上,縣域治權不同與科層制權力。科層制權力具有常規性、專業性、規范性和程序性特點,縣域治權則具有配置性、靈活性、系統性和協調性特點。縣域治權的運行主體主要是縣域黨委組織,運行機制主要是中心工作機制。換言之,縣域治權主要由縣域黨委組織與中心工作構成。縣域治權通過縣域黨委組織圍繞中心工作進行政治動員、結構整合、功能重組、資源聚集和思想領導,同時克服行政科層制的反功能,從而形成了一種獨特的統合運行權力模式。

        中國社會科學網記者 明海英

       

      作者簡介

      姓名:明海英 工作單位:

      轉載請注明來源:中國社會科學網 (責編:張振)
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